Sergeant-major in 1789 and president of the Jacobins club of Besançon, he became major general in 1793. Commandant of the army of the Haut-Rhin then of the North, he conquered Belgium and the Netherlands in 1795. But, rallied to the royalist cause, suspected of treason, he had to resign (1796). In 1797, elected to the Council of Five Hundred, of which he was the royalist president, he was arrested after 18-Fructidor. Deported to Guyana, he escaped and went to England. In 1804, he took part in the conspiracy of Cadoudal. Arrested in Paris, he was found strangled in his prison.
After the War of the Three Kingdoms or the War of the Three Kingdoms, the royal government was revived in England. The resurrected was Charles, the son of Charles I and Louis XIIIs sister Henrietta Maria, who would call himself Charles II when he was crowned. Restoration of the Royal Governmen