Chaco Culture National Historical Park , Northwest Native American ruins area New Mexico , United States. It is about 70 km south of Bloomfield and about 90 km northeast of Gallup . Established as Chaco Canyon National Monument in 1907, the park was renamed and renamed in 1980. a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. The park occupies an area of 137 square kilometers consisting of a gorge cut by the ablutions Chaco and Gallo is intersected. The name probably derives from the Spanish word Chaca ab which may be a translation of a Navajo for Canyon. The site was an administrative, commercial, and ceremonial center of the Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi) people from ad 850 to 1250. The Ancestral Pueblos were ancestors of today's Pueblo - Native American .
Noted for their intricate architecture, the buildings are connected by a series of straight, wide streets, like spokes on a wheel radiate outward. They were also once connected to dozens of other settlements in the region by 400 miles of upgraded roads. Turquoise jewelry, Obsidian leaves and macaw feathers from Mesoamerica suggest that Chaco lies on an important trade route that stretches far to the south. The park contains 13 major ruins and more than 400 smaller archaeological sites. Pueblo Bonito (built mainly in the 10th century), the largest and most fully excavated site, contained about 800 rooms and 39 kivas (round, underground ceremonial chambers). Excavations show that the inhabitants excelled in pottery, jewellery, architecture and masonry. Artifacts are displayed in the visitor center.
A 15km paved road provides access to five key locations with self-guided hiking trails. Backcountry hiking trails are also available. The park's desert climate is supportive of coyotes, bobcats, jackrabbits, prairie dogs, kangaroo rats, antelope ground squirrels, and lizards. The park is cultural with the nearby Aztec Ruins National Monument (North) and the Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado (Northwest). The large Navajo Indian reservation of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah is west of town. Other nearby national monuments include the Canyon de Chelly , El Malpais and El Morro .