Lawyer in the King's Council from 1785 to 1791, he spoke out for the Revolution, founding in 1790 the club of Cordeliers. He left for England after the Champ-de-Mars shooting. Minister of Justice after August 10, 1792, he allowed the September massacres to take place. Conventional mountain dweller, he became attached to national defense and to levy en masse, participating in the creation of the Revolutionary Court and the Committee of Public Safety. Ousted from the latter in July 1793, he became the leader of the Indulgents, hostile to the Terror, and was guillotined on charges of venality and dealings with the enemy (charges which subsequent studies have confirmed).
French trader. His fortune, built on speculation in precious metals and trade with the Levant, enabled him to become Charles VIIs banker. Appointed kings treasurer (1440), invested with import diplomatic missions, he cleaned up the monetary situation, financed the reconquest of the kingdom, while in