(Enem-MEC) The totalitarian regimes of the first half of the 20th century relied heavily on the mobilization of youth around the defense of grandiose ideas for the future of the nation. In these projects, young people should understand that there was only one person worthy of being loved and obeyed, and that was the leader. Such youth social movements contributed to the implantation and support of Nazism, in Germany, and of fascism, in Italy, Spain and Portugal. The performance of these youth movements was characterized:
a) by sectarianism and by the violent and radical way in which he faced opponents of the regime.
b) for the proposals to make the population aware of their rights as citizens.
c) for the promotion of a healthy way of life, which showed young people as examples to follow.
d) through dialogue, by organizing debates that pitted young idealists against old conservative leaders.
e) by populist political methods and the organization of mass rallies.question 2
(UFRGS) The Spanish Civil War that began in 1936, a bloody translation of two Spains and the focal point of a tormented history, became the founding myth of the international struggle against fascism. Tick the correct alternative on the topic.
a) Spain, which had never experienced a republican regime or the electoral victory of leftist regimes, witnessed in 1936 a coup d'état unleashed by the communists. It was the beginning of the Civil War.
b) The totalitarian regimes of the time, such as Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany, preferred not to materially collaborate with the Spanish nationalist faction, fearing the reaction of Spanish democracies.
c) The Civil War ended with the victory of the Nationalists over the Republicans. The Franco era was open. Red Spain, defeated. Left-wing militants, former republican fighters, were persecuted within the framework of the fierce repression of “white terror”.
d) After the victory, General Francisco Franco proclaimed the Republic and extinguished the monarchy in the name of democracy. Universal suffrage was instituted, with the extension of the vote, including to women and soldiers.
e) The Spanish nationalists, grouped in the Falange and adept at fascist practices, after being defeated in the Civil War, left for other countries to publicize their causes.question 3
Read two excerpts from journalistic articles below and answer the following question.
Spain defends the statute of limitations on Francoist crimes at the UN
“Spain defended this Tuesday (05/11/13) at the UN that the country's legislation does not include the criminal investigation of crimes committed during the civil war and Francoism, as they are crimes that have already been prescribed, in addition to having been acquitted. by the Amnesty Act of 1977.”
Yahoo Portal, November 5, 2013.
Spain bury 129 victims of Francoism found in graves
“Family members and friends of 129 victims of Francoism, whose remains were found in four mass graves, attended a ceremony this Saturday “so that they may have a dignified burial” in Aranda de Duero, in northern Spain, confirmed AFP. Urns with the remains of 129 dead were deposited in a pantheon by dozens of people, some of whom carried republican flags, at the funerary monument erected in their honor.”
"Here are received the 129 bodies of people who were murdered between July and October of the year 36", during the Civil War in Spain (1936-1939), by the forces of General Francisco Franco, José María Rojas, spokesman, told AFP. of the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (ARMH), in Aranda de Duero.”
Portal Terra, November 2, 2013.
The Civil War and Francoism resulted in the death of thousands of people, either as a result of fighting or repression. To carry out these measures, Francoism was based on two ideological pillars, which were:
a) Catholicism and anti-communism.
b) Nazism and Catholicism.
c) fascism and liberalism.
d) Catholicism and republicanism.
e) liberalism and Protestantism.question 4
“In fact, even when anarchism was more popular and its organizations had millions of members, as […] in Spain, the structure was always fragile and flexible, where the power of spontaneous thought remained the most important force. Because anarchism is anti-dogmatic at its core, and an unstructured group of related attitudes can flourish when favorable conditions exist.”
WOODCOOK, George. The great anarchist writings. P. 43.
One of the great forces of the peasant and urban workers' movements during the Spanish Civil War were the anarchist organizations, which organized factories, militias and collective work on the land. Among these anarchist organizations, two stood out. Choose the alternative that relates them correctly.
a) Spanish Anarchist Union (SAE) and Anarchist Party (PA).
b) National Labor Confederation (CNT) and Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI).
c) General Confederation of Workers (CGT) and Spanish Anarchist Federation (FAE).
d) National Confederation of Labor (CNT) and Spanish Anarchist Federation (FAE).
e) General Confederation of Workers (CGT) and Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI).answers Question 1
Letter A. The formation of groups and militias to combat opponents, mainly communists, were the main characteristics of action of these totalitarian youth movements, whose sectarianism placed the action of their leaders and their parties as the only valid one.question 2
Letter C . The alternative a it is incorrect, as the left had seized power in the 1930s; b, for stating that there was no material support from the other fascist countries; d, for claiming that Franco established the Republic, when what he did was the restoration of the monarchy; and and, as a result of the nationalists being the victors of the Civil War.question 3
Letter A. Catholicism was one of the main supporters of Francoism, and the Catholic Church actively offered support during the war and even later, during the government of General Franco. The anti-communist struggle was also one of the main characteristics of Francoism, which repressed several militants of this political tendency.question 4
Letter B. The CNT was the trade union organization controlled by the Anarchists, the FAI being its political organization.