a) profound reforms in the political-administrative system to put an end to the dictatorship of Josef Stalin and implement a statist and planned economy with the central objective of stopping the arms race.
b) reforms aimed at modernizing the Soviet economy, introducing productive processes to modernize state-owned enterprises, and reducing the arms race.
c) the definition of “five-year plans” that prioritized collective farms and led farmers to adhere to the new model that boosted Soviet industry and introduced modern production processes.
d) the recovery of the economy and the reconstruction of factories and infrastructure works, prioritizing the basic industrial sector and the military sector in order to participate in the second industrial revolution.
e) the implementation of political and economic reforms with the clear objective of restricting the arms race and introduce the industrial revolution that proposed the “fourth five-year plan”.
Question 02 - FGV-SP 2008 - Economy - 1st phase - The new general secretary of the Soviet CP, 54-year-old Mikhail Gorbachev, assumed power (...). Gorbachev is the youngest Soviet leader since Josef Stalin (...). (Jayme Brener, Journal of the 20th Century) About this government, it is correct to say that it was characterized
a) by the expansion of the atomic arsenal of the Soviet Union and its allies in Eastern Europe, as a direct result of the President's Star Wars Program Ronald Reagan.
b) for the design and execution of profound economic and political reforms that would overcome economic stagnation and guarantee the development of democracy.
c) for the constant increase in Soviet productivity in industry and agriculture, with the consequent increase in GDP, which surpassed that of the United States in 1990.
d) by the feedback from the Cold War with the formal accusation against American and British spies, in addition to the rupture of diplomatic relations with China.
br />e) for the recovery of several principles of the Stalinist era, such as the five-year plans, the collectivization of land and the obligation of equal wages for industrial workers.
Question 03 - TJ- SC - 2011 - TJ -SC - Judicial Technician - Assistant - In 1985, with the death of Konstantin Chernenko, Mikhail Gorbachev took over the general secretary of the Communist Party. A comprehensive plan of reforms in the USSR began to be implemented with Perestroika and Glasnost. The highlighted terms mean, respectively:
a) Rule of law/Democracy.
b) Democracy/Reconstruction of the economy.
c) Reconstruction of the economy/Transparency in politics.
d) Transparency in politics/Reconstruction of the economy.
e) New world order/Democracy of law.
Question 04 - UEMG 2009 - Look closely at the following cartoon about the collapse of the Soviet regime:
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev took over the direction of the former USSR. To correct the course of the communist regime in the economic field, Gorbachev promised a policy of openness and transparency, which became known as Perestroika. All of the alternatives below represent the main economic difficulties faced by Soviet society in the 1980s, EXCEPT:
A) Low dynamic economy hamstrung by the rigid central planning of the State.
B) Supply crises and low supply of popular consumer products.
C) Slow decision-making processes and inadequate to the continental dimensions of the country and its diversity.
D) Low education of the Russian population and reduced infrastructure.
Question 05 - UFPR 2007 - 1st phase - “It is exactly this relationship of interdependence between the party apparatus and the State apparatus, in the control of the economy and society, that explains the need for a global transformation, involving political institutions and the State itself, in order to ensure the reconstruction of the economy. And this is what differentiates perestroika from the economic reforms that preceded it. Perestroika, more than an economic reform, intends to rebuild the entire system, promoting at the same time a political and social reform. The process was launched concomitantly with a democratic opening (glasnost) that, like perestroika itself, gradually expanded over the years; and for a redefinition of the USSR's foreign policy.”
(POMERANZ, Lenina. Perestroika:challenges of social transformation in the USSR. São Paulo:Edusp, 1990, p. 14.)
The coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in the extinct Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), in 1985, provided a strong shock to the socialist regime inaugurated with the Russian Revolution of 1917. On the subject, it is correct to say:a) A striking example of the contradictions that existed in the USSR it was the Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred in 1986, and which explained the problems of the Soviet development model. b) Perestroika was a reformulation of the Soviet economy without major repercussions on the social structure of the USSR. c) The primacy of Soviet industry in the technological area, in relation to its capitalist rivals, was responsible for the failure of the economic restructuring proposed by Gorbachev. d) The efficiency of the decentralized management model that prevailed in the Soviet Republic was the main obstacle to the transformations advocated by glasnost. e) The main contribution of the transformations led by Gorbachev was the survival of the so-called “real socialism”.
Question 06 - UTFPR 2010-2 - Winter - In the year 1985, statesman Mikhail Gorbachev took control of the Soviet Communist Party with innovative ideas. Among his major governmental goals, Gorbachev undertook two measures:“restructuring” and “transparency”. The first aimed to modernize the Soviet economy by adopting measures that reduced the state's participation in the economy. The second was aimed at softening the government's power of meddling in civil affairs. These measures became known as:
A) Sovkhoz and Kolkhoz.
B) Perestroika and Glasnost.
C) Komintern and Konsomol.
D) Sputnik and Vostok.
E) Bolshevik and Menchevik.
Question 07 - FGV-SP 2000 - 1st phase - In December 1987, after decades of deadlock in relations between the Soviets and the United States, an agreement was signed in Washington between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev that stipulated:
a) the mutual development of a complex technological system advanced in defense of nuclear missiles;
b) the withdrawal of Soviet advisers from Nicaragua;
c) the US economic aid in the technological and biotechnology field to the USSR;
d) the slowdown of the arms race, for predicting the destruction of atomic missiles;
e) the withdrawal of the US military contingent from Afghanistan.
Question 08 - Albert Einstein (Medicine) - 2016 - Mikhail Gorbachev carried out, in the Soviet Union of the 1980s, a set of reforms, which became known as “perestroika” and “glasnost”. They aimed, among other factors,
a) the political-military control of Eastern Europe and the reform of the educational system.
b) the economic restructuring of the country and the process of democratization of the State.
>c) political control by the Communist Party and the peaceful transition to socialism.
d) massive investment in the nuclear program and the adoption of a market economy.
Issue 09 - EAD / UFPR 2009/2010 - The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 can be considered as a symbol of the collapse of real socialism in Eastern Europe and the end of the Cold War. About this historical moment, it is correct to say:
a) The end of real socialism was concomitant and peaceful in the various countries that formed the Warsaw Pact.
b) Glasnost (transparency) was one of the elements- key to Mikhail Gorbachev's policy.
c) The unification of Germany constituted an obstacle to the process of overcoming national rivalries.
d) The end of the Cold War did not reduce military spending, which continued to consume 6% of the North American GDP.
e) In the early 1990s, efforts to form the European Union failed.
Question 10 - UERJ - 2017 - 2nd Qualifying Exam -
On December 25, 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev was living his last hours in the Kremlin. That was a day of hope for millions of people in Russia, who looked to the future with optimism. It was also a time of mourning for millions more, now former Soviet citizens. The new map meant for many of them having to leave the place where they were born, leaving family and relics there. “When the red flag was lowered I was in a state of shock”, recalls Sergei Kosarev, who was then 37 years old. “I, born in Sochi, had finished high school in Kazakhstan. Suddenly, my friends, my youth, were left behind in other countries. I thought this was all for the bad, and at first it was hard. But the worst was not the first year of economic reform, but later, when in Russia they stopped paying salaries on time, and there were delays of six months or more,” he says. “In the end, in my case everything was for the good, I recovered the religion of my ancestors, like millions of other orthodox people, and I saw half the world; neither one thing nor the other would have been possible in the U.R.S.S.”, he concludes.
Adapted from brasil.elpais.com, 12/23/2016.
According to the report, the end of the U.R.S.S. brought the following significant changes to some of its former citizens:
(A) recovery of trade union freedom and loss of communist ideology
(B) liberalization of industrial initiative and abandonment of commercial unity
(C) ) expansion of labor law and weakening of military power
(D) fragmentation of the national territory and resizing of cultural identity
01 - B
02 - B
03 - C
04 - D
05 - A
06 - B
07 - D
08 - B
09 - B
10 - D