Historical story

Chapter-41 - Painting of India (A)

Painting of Indus Civilization

The first evidence of painting done by civilized man has been received from the Indus civilization. Beautiful pictures are found on many coins, utensils and other materials found in the excavation of Indus sites. Images of animals, birds, trees, humans, deities, etc. have been found on some seals. Nine leaves of peepal are inscribed on the heads of two animals on a currency. On another mudra, there is a picture of a naked woman with a twig on either side. In front of him is a picture of another figure wearing a crown of leaves.

These images appear to be of the goddess of flora. Various markings of Peepal are found on many of their currencies. Somewhere it is shown rising from the altar, and somewhere the deity is inscribed inside it. In different pictures, the number of leaves on the twigs of peepal is kept different. In one place, seven leaves on its five twigs are shown upwards, two downwards and one in equal. Many designs of peepal twigs and leaves have also been found on clothes and utensils.

Images of bulls have been found on some coins. A humpback bull is inscribed on a copper plate from Mohenjodaro. Like bulls, pictures of buffaloes and buffaloes have also been found on many currencies. On one of the mudras is inscribed a picture of a man worshiping a cow. A serpent is shown lying on a platform. Images of birds like elephant, tiger, sheep, goat, rhinoceros, deer, camel, gharial, squirrel, parrot, rooster, peacock etc. have also been found on various coins obtained from the Indus Civilization. It is possible that these animals and birds were the vehicles of various gods and goddesses.

In some postures, humans are shown fighting with a cheetah. In this picture a man climbing a tree is driving a leopard away and a running leopard is looking backwards. It is estimated from these postures that cheetahs were found in large numbers during that period and there was a constant struggle of humans with them. The Sandhavas used to draw the shape of animals in a strange way. Some animals are half human and half animal.

Half sheep, half goat, half elephant and half bull or other similar combination used to make animal figures. From this it can be inferred that they worshiped them as divine parts in them.

Ancient pictures of Aryan settlements

Paintings have been done through white, black and red lines on the utensils found from the Vedic settlements of Aryan civilization. With the development of civilization, the development of painting also went on.

Mauryan Painting

Significant progress was also made in the field of painting during the Maurya period. The creation of Buddhist style paintings started during this period. Sufficient samples of paintings of that period have not been available. In the Mauryan Buddhist text Vinaya Pitaka of the third century BC, there is a mention of painting inscribed in the Rajaprasadas. Around the 1st century BC, painting Shadanga (six parts of painting) developed.

Mention of painting in ancient texts

Various forms of art have been mentioned in ancient Hindu and Buddhist literature, such as Lepyachitra, Aakhyachitra and Dhulichitra. The first type of art is related to frescoes. The second is related to drawings and paintings made on prehistoric textiles and the third type of art is made in the courtyard.

There is a mention of paintings and tapes in the play called Mudrarakshasa of the fifth century AD. Painting is also mentioned under 64 arts in Vatsyayana's text Kamasutra of 6th century AD and it is said that this art is based on scientific principles. Vatsyayana has mentioned six parts of painting. While commenting on the third chapter of the first chapter of the Kamasutra, Yashodhara Pandit has described the six parts of painting as follows-

Roopbheda:Pramanani Bhavalavanyyojanam.

Samanayana chromatic aberration iti chitra shandagakam.

That is- (1.) morphology, (2.) proof- correct size and structure etc., (3.) expressions, (4.) Lavanya scheme, (5.) visual legislation, (6.) pigmentation.

'Chitrasutra' of Vishnudharmottara Purana composed by Markandeya Muni in the seventh century AD Art is discussed in the chapter. In this painting, describing it as high, it is considered an art giving religion, work, artha and salvation. Where it is worshiped, there is Mars-

Kalana Pravaram Chitra, Dharma Kamartha Mokshadam.

Mangalyam Pratham Chaitad, Grihe Yatra Pratishtam.

Six parts of painting have been described by Markandeya Muni- (1) Variation of shape, (2) Proportion, (3.) Bhava, (4.) Brightness, (5.) Visual Law, (6.) Colors. Effects etc.

Different Styles of Painting

The practice of painting in India was present in different parts of the country and in all periods of history, due to which many styles were developed. Among these six styles are main- (1.) Ajanta style, (2.) Gujarat style, (3.) Mughal style, (4.) Rajput style, (5.) Deccan style (6.) Present style.

Ajanta Painting Style

The world-famous caves of Ajanta are located in the Sahyadri ranges in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. The number of these caves is 20. Of these, cave numbers 9, 10, 19 and 26 are chaityas, the remaining caves are monasteries for Buddhist monks. Cave numbers 8, 12 and 13 are the oldest. The walls of the 13th cave are polished and date back to BC. 200 (Maurya period). There are no paintings in these three caves. The 8th and 13th caves belong to the Hinayana sect and were probably excavated between 200 BC to 150 BC (in Shunga period).

The sixth and seventh caves were probably excavated between AD 450-550 (in the Gupta period). Some caves are even later. The first cave was probably the last one. The paintings of these caves belong to different periods. The paintings of these caves are from about a hundred years before Christ to the seventh century AD.

There are paintings of two periods in the ninth-tenth caves, among which the oldest paintings date back to the first BC. The paintings are from the first century while the later paintings are from the Gupta period (AD.320–495), the Vakatakas (AD.250–500) and the Chalukya period (AD.550–642). Most of these images are now erased or tarnished. All over the world these frescoes have been admired with free will.

The painting style developed in the caves of Ajanta is called Ajanta style. This painting is not of any one period, but the main feature of this style is that this painting style is found painted only on the walls of the caves. These are called murals. Paintings are made on the wall by applying a coating of lime etc. These 'fresco-illustration' Also called.

The paintings done in the Ajanta caves were prepared over many centuries, its oldest painting dates back to BC. is of the first century. Lord Buddha is depicted in various forms in these paintings. Regarding the painting of Ajanta, Mrs. Graboska has written- 'The art of Ajanta is the ancient art of India. The beauty of the paintings is astonishing and it is a symbol of the advancement of Indian painting.'

Gupta period Ajanta painting

There was great progress in painting during the Gupta period. There are beautiful examples of painting of this period in the walls of Ajanta and Ellora caves. These paintings have been made from thunderbolt. In this period, along with the depiction of nature, human figures were also made in large numbers.

Harsha Kalin Ajanta Painting

Harsha period paintings are found in Ajanta cave number 1 and 2. These paintings are of two types- (1) The first type of paintings lacks motion and life whereas (2) the second type of paintings lacks the similarity of composition. One of the paintings shows Pulakeshin II welcoming the Persian emperor Khusrau Parvez. Images of Lord Buddha and animals and birds are made abundantly in these caves.

Ajanta painting after Harsha period

After Harsha, Ajanta painting reached its peak around 7th-8th century. During this period, the influence of Ajanta style is visible in one form or the other on the whole country. Writers like Kalidas, Bharavi, Magha, Bhavabhuti etc. have indicated these pictures in their texts.

Themes of Ajanta Caves Paintings

The main theme of Ajanta paintings is Buddhism. The Ajanta caves depict events from the life of Mahatma Buddha and the Jataka tales. These pictures can be put in four parts-

(1.) Pictures of Buddha and Bodhisattvas,

(2.) Scenes from the stories of Jataka texts.

(3.) Flowers, trees, vines, animals, birds, deities etc.

(4.) Illustrations of Apsaras, Gandharvas and Yakshas to fill in the blanks.

The frescoes of Ajanta look amazing because of the imagination of the images, the scheme of colors, the elegance of the lines and the richness of expression. 'The art of Ajanta is so complete, so innocent in tradition, so alive in meaning and so rich in the variety of subject matter, in the beauty of shape and color that it is included among the best works of art in the world. em>

Although these paintings are filled with different emotions of human life, yet they have such a spiritual characteristic that due to which there is no obscenity in them. The depiction of Cave No. 1 is extremely distinctive. The ceiling of Cave No. 2 also has similar attractive ornamentation. The movement of the animals is very beautifully expressed in the bull fight depicted in the ceiling of the first cave.

The paintings of cave number nine and ten belong to the first century AD. On the wall of the ninth cave, there is a picture of a yogi sitting in the prayer posture. The paintings of the tenth cave are also very alive. There is a drawing of an elephant on the right wall. Most of the paintings of this cave have been erased. Even the paintings of the sixteenth cave are now scarce. When Griffith made copies of these paintings in AD 1874, a large number of drawings were in existence.

Griffith had a great appreciation for Ajanta art. Verges described the paintings of the 17th cave as the most beautiful. The descent of Prince Vijay on the Sinhala land is considered to be unequaled for its extraordinary speed and beauty. The painting of Bodhisattva Padmapani Avilokitesvara in Cave No. 1 is the best example of Indian painting.

There is an expression of compassion on the face of this picture. In this cave, the arrival of some people in the guise of the inhabitants of Persia is depicted. The Persian atmosphere presented in it is completely different from other paintings of Ajanta. These images are of the Persian messengers sent by the Persian Shah Khusrau Parvez to the Chalukyaraj Pulakeshin (II).

Cave No. 2 has a picture of a heroine standing on a pillar and resting on a pillar with her left leg bent. He has joined the thumb and ring finger of the left hand. Cave number 10 depicts a king surrounded by queens. This picture is quite ancient, but the expression of the figures is very strong and there is an unprecedented freshness on the face. In a painting made in the 17th cave, a mother and a son are giving alms to Buddha. A sense of humility is manifesting from their limbs, their eyelids are scattered, their eyes are half-open. A painting in the 17th cave shows a woman carrying her baby.

Beauty has been cultivated in the paintings of Ajanta. In these paintings, the artists have not left any area of ​​human life untouched. Friendship, compassion, love, anger, shame, joy, enthusiasm, hatred etc. in the paintings of Ajanta, from Padmamani Bodhisattva, Avalokiteshvara, Pacific ascetic and Devopam royal family to cruel huntsman, merciless killer, sage dressed sly, war-vanita , engrossed Buddha, loving couple and adorned heroines are inscribed.

Various types of body postures, face-postures, expressions, expressions, costumes, ornaments, hairstyles, appearance-colours, etc. are depicted in these paintings. In the paintings of Ajanta, many beautiful pictures have been made of Rahul and his mother, Chhadant Jataka, the story of a cruel Brahmin, Shiva Jatak, water sports of Gajraj, the gaiety of poets, the escape of Nand etc.

In the Ajanta style, the fingers are depicted like lotus petals and the eyes are half-closed. Both the eyes seem to be rhyming. The variety of subjects of the paintings, their discontinuity from life and their innate natural marking have created a wonderful world of art. The scenes of cities, palaces, simple residences, forest-provinces etc. have been preserved as if in pictures.

Delhi-Sultanate Carpet Painting

Idol-worship and making pictures and idols of human beings are prohibited in Islam. Because while doing this the sculptor imagines that he is giving life to his painted objects. Thus he begins to equate himself with Allah. Whereas the only one who provides life is Allah. For this reason the medieval Muslims considered it a sin to paint animals.

Therefore the Sultans of Delhi, the Muslim rich and the common people stayed away from painting and did not patronize sculptors and painters. However, during the Sultanate period, some paintings were made as an exception, which have Iranian influence.

Sikandar Lodi got the portrait of Vallabhacharyaji made sitting in front of him by a skilled painter of his time. This picture was kept in the palace of Sikandar Lodi all the time. Later, when the Mughals took control of Agra, this picture came to the Mughal emperors. Mughal emperor Humayun protected this picture and put it in his palace.

जब शेरशाह सूरी ने हूमायूँ को भारत से भगा दिया तब भी वल्लभाचार्यजी का यह चित्र सुल्तान के महलों में सुरक्षित रहा। जब हुमायूँ लौटकर आया तब भी यह चित्र सुरक्षित था। अकबर, जहाँगीर तथा शाहजहां ने भी इस चित्र को संभाल कर रखा। शाहजहाँ के काल में जब किशनगढ़ का राजा रूपसिंह बलख और काबुल विजय के बाद आगरा आया तब उसने यह चित्र अपनी विजय के पुरस्कार के रूप में शाहजहाँ से मांग लिया।

इस प्रकार यह चित्र आज भी किशनगढ़ में सुरक्षित है। इस घटना से यह कहा जा सकता है कि दिल्ली सल्तनत में सिकंदर लोदी के काल से ही चित्रकला को पुनः प्रतिष्ठा मिलने लगी थी जो मुगलों के समय भी तब तक जारी रही जब तक कि औरंगजेब मुगलों के तख्त पर नहीं बैठ गया।

मुगल कालीन चित्रकला

मुगल साम्राज्य की स्थापना के साथ ही चित्रकला में नवजीवन आ गया। मुगल बादशाह चित्रकला के महान् प्रेमी थे। हेरात में बहजाद नामक चित्रकार ने चित्रकला की एक नई शैली आरम्भ की जो चीनी कला का प्रान्तीय रूप था और इस पर भारतीय, बौद्ध, ईरानी, बैक्ट्रियाई और मंगोलियन तत्त्वों का प्रभाव था। इसे बहजाद कला कहा जाता था। फारस के तैमूरवंशी राजाओं ने इसे राजकीय सहायता दी।

बाबर के काल में चित्रकला

बाबर जब हेरात में आया, तब उसका बहजाद की चित्रकला से परिचय हुआ। बाबर ने इस चित्रशैली में अनेक हस्तलिखित ग्रन्थों की प्रतिलिपियाँ चित्रित करवाईं तथा इस कला को अपने साथ भारत ले आया।

हुमायूँ के काल में चित्रकला

हुमायूँ भी चित्रकला प्रेमी था। उसका फारस के उच्चकोटि के चित्रकारों से अच्छा परिचय था। इनमें से एक हेरात का प्रसिद्ध चित्रकार बहजाद का शिष्य मीर सैय्यद अली था और दूसरा ख्वाजा अब्दुस समद था। हुमायूँ इन दोनों को अपने साथ भारत ले आया। अब्दुस्समद द्वारा तैयार किए जाने वाले चित्रों में कुछ चित्र जहाँगीर द्वारा संकलित ‘गुलशन चित्रावली’ में संकलित हैं। ‘हम्जनामा’ , जिसे ‘दास्ताने अमीर हम्जा’ भी कहते हैं, मुगल चित्रकला शैली में चित्रित सबसे महत्वपूर्ण चित्र संग्रह है।

‘हम्जनामा’ मीर सैय्यद अली एवं अब्दुस्समद के नेतृत्व में देश के विभिन्न भागों से बुलाए गए लगभग 100 चित्रकारों के समूह द्वारा तैयार किया गया जिसे पूरा करने में लगभग पन्द्रह वर्ष लगे। हम्जनामा में लगभग 1400 पृष्ठों को चित्रित किया गया। हुमायूँ तथा अकबर ने ईरानी कलाकारों से चित्रकला का कुछ ज्ञान प्राप्त किया। इस काल में अधिकांश चित्र सूती-वस्त्रों पर बनाए जाते थे।

इन चित्रों में ईरानी, भारतीय तथा यूरोपीयन शैलियों का सम्मिश्रण है किन्तु ईरानी शैली की प्रधानता होने के कारण इसे ईरानी कलम कहा गया। इस शैली को मुगल काल की प्रारम्भिक चित्रकला शैली कहा जा सकता है।

अकबर के काल में चित्रकला

अकबर के उदारवादी दृष्टिकोण के कारण अकबर के शासनकाल में चित्रकला की नई शैली विकसित हुई जो ईरानी और भारतीय शैली के सर्वोत्तम तत्त्वों का सम्मिश्रण थी। इस नवीन शैली में विदेशी तत्त्व भारतीय शैली में इस तरह घुल-मिल गये कि दोनों के पृथक् अस्तित्त्व का पत लगा पाना असम्भव हो गया और वह बिल्कुल भारतीय हो गई। अकबर ने चित्रकारी हेतु एक अलग विभाग स्थापित किया।

अबुल फजल ने आइने अकबरी में पन्द्रह प्रसिद्ध चित्रकारों का उल्लेख किया है जिनमें तेरह हिन्दू थे। दसवन्त, बसावन महेश, लाल मुकुन्द, सावलदास, अब्दुस्समद, सैय्यद अली आदि अकबर के दरबारी चित्रकार थे। रज्मनामा में दसवन्त के बनाए चित्र हैं।

मुगल चित्रकला के इतिहास में रज्मनामा को मील का पत्थर माना जाता है। दसवन्त के द्वारा बनाई गई अन्य कलाकृतियों में खानदाने-तैमूरिया और तूतीनामा शामिल हैं। बसावन अकबर के दरबार के मुख्य चित्रकारों में से एक था। बसावन को चित्रकला के सभी पक्षों में सिद्धहस्तता प्राप्त थी। एक कृशकाय घोड़े के साथ निर्जन क्षेत्र में भटकता हुआ मजनूं का चित्र बसावन की उत्कृष्ट कृति है।

जहाँगीर के काल में चित्रकला

जहाँगीर का शासनकाल भारतीय चित्रकला का स्वर्ण-काल था। जहाँगीर स्वयं अच्छा चित्रकार था। इस काल की चित्रकला में कई प्रयोग हुए। जहाँगीर ने अपनी आत्मकथा तुजुके जहाँगीरी में लिखा है कि कोई भी चित्र चाहे वह किसी जीवित चित्रकार द्वारा बनाया गया हो अथवा मृतक चित्रकार द्वारा, मैं चित्र को देखते ही बता सकता हूँ कि यह किसकी कृति है। यदि कोई चित्र विभिन्न चित्रकारों द्वारा बनाया गया है तो भी मैं उनके चेहरे अलग-अलग करके बता सकता हूँ कि कौन से अंग किस चित्रकार ने बनाएं हैं।

जहाँगीर ने हेरात के प्रसिद्ध चित्रकार आकारिजा के नेतृत्व में आगरा में एक चित्रशाला की स्थापना की। जहाँगीर के शासनकाल में शिकार, युद्ध और दरबारी दृश्यों, आकृति-चित्रण, पशुओं व फूलों आदि के चित्रांकन में विशेष उन्नति हुई। उस्ताद मंसूर और अबुल हसन इस काल के दो बड़े नाम थे. मंसूर पक्षी-विशेषज्ञ चित्रकार था जबकि अबुल हसन व्यक्ति-चित्र बनाने में निपुण था।

जहाँगीर ने मंसूर को नादिर-उल्-सर तथा हसन को नादिर-उल-जमा की उपाधि दी। मंसूर की उत्कृष्ट कृतियों में साइबेरियाई सारस तथा बंगाल का अनोखा पुष्प सम्मिलित हैं। फारूखबेग, बिसनदास, दौलत एवं मनोहर भी जहाँगीर कालीन प्रमुख चित्रकार थे। जहाँगीर की मृत्यु के साथ ही मुगल चित्रकला का विकास रुक गया।

शाहजहाँ के काल में चित्रकला

शाहजहाँ को चित्रकला में विशेष रुचि नहीं थी तो भी उसने चित्रकला को संरक्षण प्रदान किया। फकीर उल्ला, मीर हाशिम, अनूप, चित्रा, मुहम्मद नादिर, हुनर एवं मुरार आदि शाहजहांकालीन प्रमुख चित्रकार थे।

औरंगजेब के काल में चित्रकला

औरंगजेब ने मुगल दरबार से चित्रकारों, संगीतज्ञों, कला-मर्मज्ञों आदि को निकाल दिया। इन कलाकारों ने राजस्थान और पंजाब के राजाओं के यहाँ आश्रय प्राप्त किया जिससे वहाँ नवीन चित्रकला शैलियों का विकास संभव हो सका।

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