He is the son of Philippe Égalité. He took part in the Battle of Valmy, and became Dumouriez' aide-de-camp. Then he left France and led a precarious life. He marries Marie-Amélie de Bourbon. Returned under Louis XVIII, he was appointed lieutenant of the kingdom then king of the French during the revolution of 1830. After choosing liberal ministers, he turned to a very conservative regime established by Casimir Perier, its leader. On the death of the latter, major troubles arose:republican insurrection, legitimate attempt by the Duchess of Berry, insurrections by Barbès, Blanqui or Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. He escaped several attacks including that of Fieschi who killed Marshal Mortier. His minister Guizot became the real master of the country for eight years. His reign favors the upper middle class, and he has to face an economic and moral crisis. He was overthrown by the February 1848 revolution and abdicated in favor of his son.