History of Asia

Huan Wen-The thoughts of the intestine, the warlord of Eastern Jin, who is famous for the story of his friend Takema-

He is a person named Huan Wen, who was an influential person in Eastern Jin, who is also known for articles such as "Friends of stilts" and "Thoughts of intestinal failure".

Unfortunately, it does not appear in world history textbooks at all, but he is also a very important person in talking about Chinese history.

Kitago and Nishifu

When the new dynasty was destroyed by the Eiji turbulence in 316, the survivor of the Sima clan, Sima, who was a royal family, moved to Gangnam and founded Eastern Jin in 317 the following year.

Since Gangnam was a territory of the country of Sangokushi Wu in the olden days, and the country of Wu itself was a gathering of powerful tribes, Eastern Jin always had a conflict between the indigenous lords and the aristocrats from Nakahara. It was a nation.

Makoto Shiba treated the aristocrats who fled from the north, including the King's clan, more than the people of Gangnam, and did not use the original aristocrats except for some.

However, when some of these aristocrats, especially the clan centered on Wang Dao, strengthened, the Sima clan tried to reduce the power of the royal clan and an internal conflict broke out.

When Wang Dun, who succeeded Wang Dao, died of illness, the royal family was murdered, and then the influential people changed rapidly, such as Yu Liang, Yu Bing, Yu Yi, and He Chong.

On the other hand, the corps of Eastern Jin was divided into two parts, Kitago by the influx of people from the north and Nishifu led by the consort kin clan, and the state of mutual restraint continued. ..

Huan Wen is a person who strengthened himself as a corps leader of Nishifu who formed the flow of these influential people.

Stilts friends

Huan Wen is from what is now Anhui Province, and his father was the guardian of the then-placed Xuancheng County, and his ancestors are said to lead to a renowned Confucian scholar.

His father died in the rebellion caused by Su Jun, who was in conflict with Wang Dun, and Huan Wen succeeded in defeating the person who participated in the rebellion and made a name for himself.

Eventually, in 347, Huan Wen, who became the provincial governor of Jingzhou in Saifu, invaded the Cheng Han of the Di tribe set up on the land of the 蜀 and succeeded in destroying it.

At this time, his subordinate had taken a baby monkey, and the mother monkey had tried to recover it. Unfortunately her mother monkey couldn't get her child back and she died, but her intestines were cut off. From here, the story of "thoughts of intestinal failure" was born.

At that time, the later Zhao of North China, which was also built by the Jie tribe, was on the verge of extinction due to the internal collapse, so Huan Wen offered to cut north on this occasion, but it was rejected.

Eastern Jin independently ordered a person named Yin Hao to lead the Northern Expedition to the Northern Expedition. The reason for this was purely afraid of the expansion of Huan Wen's power, and Yin Hao had a close relationship with Huan Wen since he was a child.

However, Yin Hao fails terribly and takes responsibility for it and is dropped to the position of the common people.

At this time, Huan Wen said:

"Yin Hao and I used to play with bamboo horses when we were children, but Yin Hao always played with the stilts I abandoned."

Nowadays, it is used to mean "friend of stilts", but Harayoshi was the word that wrote the power relationship in this way.

Huan Wen, who became able to move not only Nishifu but also Kitago due to Yin Hao's defeat, embarked on a large-scale Northern Expedition to subdue the different races in the north.

Northern Expedition

In the history of China, attacking from the south to the north is called "northern expedition".

China's 4000-year history began in the Yellow River basin, and its center was always north, with some exceptions.

At that time, North China was dominated by Former Qin, who was founded by a person named Fu Jian of the Di tribe, and Huan Wen initially invaded this from Hanchu.

Huan Wen was welcomed by the Han Chinese along the way, and some even cried that he didn't think he could see the government forces again.

Huan Wen, who survived a fierce battle and came to the suburbs of Chang'an, could not attack and once returned to Xiangyang, the capital of Jingzhou.

Next, Huan Wen, who started northern expedition, aims for Luoyang instead of Chang'an. At that time, Luoyang was surrounded by Yao Xiang, the chief of the Qiang tribe, and Huan Wen faced a battle with the Qiang tribe.

After a fierce battle, Huan Wen defeated the Qiang tribe, and Jin was able to keep Luoyang in his hands for the first time in 45 years.

He settled the area around Luoyang and proposed to the Jiankang government to relocate to Luoyang, but was rejected, and Huan Wen was ordered to return to Jiankang as it was.

Gohu invaded Luoyang with a chance that Huan Wen wasn't there, and North China was once again in the hands of a different race.

In 369, Huan Wen started northern expedition again, but was repelled by the Xianbei tribe and did not produce sufficient results.

Huan Wen insisted on surrendering the emperor to himself by Shan Rang, but was opposed by Xie An and Wang Tanzhi and gave up.

In 372, Huan Wen died easily.

Later, the descendants of Huan Wen became independent from Eastern Jin and built a country called Chu, where they were given the mausoleum of Emperor Nobubu.

The country was destroyed in just one year.

Personal evaluation of Huan Wen

A person named Wang Meng declined Huan Wen's invitation.

This person named Wang Meng is one of the most talented people in Chinese history, and he will serve the only name in the Sixteen Kingdoms era, but he seems to have a certain eye for him.

Huan Wen's achievements are relatively large.

The territory of Eastern Jin, which once regained Luoyang and acquired the land of Shu, is the largest in this era. It is also great that Nishifu and Kitago, which had been in conflict, were unified.

Luoyang was regained solely due to the missteps of the Eastern Jin dynasty, not Huan Wen's responsibility.

Jin is a dynasty in which no one was named after all.

Aside from that, Huan Wen was a very good man, but I don't think he had any ambitions.

It was dreamy, but Fu Jian, who was served by Wang Meng, had a magnificent ideal.

If Huan Wen had a cause suitable for unifying China, or could have realized it.

However, I think Huan Wen was halfway.

Eventually, his intention to seize was exposed and ended.

Looking at the life of Huan Wen, it is easy to understand why Zhuge Liang Komei, who did not seize the throne, is so favored by later generations.

"If you can't pass on your good name to posterity, you should leave your infamy to the world."

This is a word that is said to have been left by Huan Wen, but it may be said that this word is a good expression of the human being Huan Wen.