1192 Minamoto no Yoritomo Was appointed as Shogun General and opened the Kamakura Shogunate.
[ Iikuni (1192) Let's make Kamakura Shogunate ]
When I learned Japanese history, I was taught:
But history changes with each new interpretation or discovery. The establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate is no exception, and the current textbook states that the Shogunate was established from 1192 to 1185.
I would like to write about where the interpretation of the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate came from in 1185 and where it went in 1192 (Iikuni).
What is the Shogunate in the first place?
Before that, let's study what the shogunate is in the first place.
Since ancient times, in China, the shogunate's shogunate during the expedition has been referred to as the " shogunate . It seems that he was calling.
In other words, the front headquarters tent used by the shogun on the battlefield. It points to.
Later 1190, Minamoto no Yoritomo Is Konoe Daisho Kamakura's mansion is shogunate Called 1192 Shogun General Even after that, the building was located in Kamakura, so the chief of the samurai family and the building were also called the shogunate.
Currently, the samurai government is called the shogunate, but this is used as a historical concept.
What is Shogun?
Here Shogun Came out, so let's think about it together.
Shogun Is the " Ezo tribe " in the Tohoku region in the early Heian period. ] Is a temporary commander to subdue. Famous places are Sakanoue Tamura Maro Is so inaugurated. This Shogun Since he was given tremendous authority over military operations, after the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate, he had the meaning of a samurai lord and had a new political meaning as the chief of the shogunate.
Simple flow until the destruction of the Heike
Now that we have confirmed the Shogunate and Shogun, let's review a little about the destruction of the Heike clan to confirm the facts.
Hogen Rebellion / Heiji Rebellion Mr. Taira, who won the victory in, will be proud of the overwhelming power as a pioneer of the samurai government. It was Go-Shirakawa who was not happy with the expansion of Taira's power. Then, it will start to move to subdue Mr. Taira.
1177 Go-Shirakawa Tried to overthrow Taira, but Taira no Kiyomori Will be imprisoned by. This is [ Shishigatani Incident ] Is called. In this case, Mr. Taira's power will be strengthened at once.
1180 after the incident Emperor Antoku and Emperor Takakura have a blood relationship with Taira no Kiyomori The power will be concentrated on Mr. Taira.
I was worried about this Prince Mochihito Genji to overthrow Taira It starts to move with, but Taira no Kiyomori The overwhelming strength of the army ends in failure. However, this triggered a civil war throughout the country. [ Genpei War ]
Taira no Kiyomori with power that surpasses the emeritus and emperor But 1181 Emperor Takakura has passed away And the flow changes.
At that time, there were emperors and emerituses .. Among them, the emeritus who controls the affairs Is [ Chiten no Kimi ], That is, monarch Reigned as. Taira no Kiyomori Has been Emperor Takakura instead of Go-Shirakawa since the Shishigatani conspiracy. I was sitting as a monarch. However, Emperor Takakura died.
I tried to establish Emperor Antoku as the emeritus, but I decided that it was impossible for me to age, and Kiyomori had no choice but to Go-Shirakawa . I admit that I will return as a monarch. However, the death of Taira no Kiyomori due to illness in the same year effectively regained power of Pope Go-Shirakawa.
As a result, Go-Shirakawa Will move to overthrow the Taira clan again. First, Yoshinaka Kiso Is given a decree to subdue the Taira clan. As a result, the emperor (emperor) who holds power will be able to "defeat the Heike . Socially, Mr. Taira is in the position of a rebel have become.
With the backing of the emperor, Genpei has been in a fierce Genpei War since 1183. Drive the Heike to the west, 1185, Battle of Dannoura Victory in and the Taira clan is destroyed.
The above is a simple flow until the destruction of the Taira clan.
Establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate
Yamakawa Japanese history does not say that the Kamakura Shogunate was established in 1192.
Source:"Detailed Japanese History B" (Yamakawa Shuppansha)
As far as I read this text, 1192 It does not say that the Kamakura Shogunate was established in 1185 . It is written that the Kamakura Shogunate was virtually established.
Shogun in this era Is the samurai's pinnacle There is no doubt that it is. Moreover, in this era, the pinnacle of samurai =the pinnacle of Japan It's not strange to say that. To that end, Shogun General =Open the Shogunate It has become an image.
Separately Shogun That does not mean that the shogunate will be opened.
Actually Minamoto no Yoritomo Also, "Become a Shogun General and open the Shogunate! I didn't think that, so it was 1192 . Is Minamoto no Yoritomo Was given the position of Shogun General by the imperial court. What is it?
Then, why is it said that the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate, which is the main subject, was in 1185?
Before the establishment of the Shogunate, Minamoto no Yoritomo took the following steps.
① 1180 A "samurai-dokoro" was established to control vassals (gokenins)
⇒At this time, almost the entire area of South Kanto was already under control.
② 1183 The in-no-cho approved Yoritomo's rule of the East
⇒ The imperial court granted Yoritomo control, although it was limited to the East.
③ 1184 A major political institution (public office / inquiry office) was established
⇒Political affairs and trial system are in place
④ 1185 Established a guardian and Jito and seized land management rights nationwide
⇒ Yoritomo gets the right to protect and place a priest in each country.
⑤ 1190 Oshu was settled
⇒ Yoritomo is appointed as General Ukonoe, who is a higher official than Shogun.
⑥ 1192 Appointed as Shogun General
⇑ I think this series of steps is the most important.
As mentioned above, the system of the Kamakura Shogunate was not completed at once in 1192, but it was completed by taking 1 to 5 courses. The key point in this process is ④ [ 1185 Established a guardian / Jito and seized land management rights nationwide] So, take control of military and police powers in each area [ protection ] And is in charge of collecting annual tribute and managing land [ Jito By getting the right to appoint], I was able to incorporate it under my control.
As a result, it is thought that a rule system centered on Minamoto no Yoritomo was established, and the theory that the Kamakura Shogunate was established in 1185 came out. That said, the establishment of the Shogunate in 1185 is not a definite matter, and one theory Please think that.
Looking at the flow from (1) to (6), I feel that it is a little strange to use the appointment of Shogun General in 1192 as the starting point for the Kamakura period. Yoritomo has been a samurai-dokoro and public office since before 1192. , Questionnaire In parallel with the establishment of the government, you can see that the imperial court has given authority one after another and is solidifying the outer moat of its control system.
Therefore, the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate took steps (1) to (5) to complete the system of the Shogunate, and after the de facto establishment of the Shogunate, 1192 Appointment of Shogun Completed with name and reality That is the current historical awareness.
Which should be adopted for classes and entrance exams?
I often hear that history is not remembered by the year, but by the flow (story), but that is exactly the case, and instead of remembering the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate by the year, the conquest of 1185 to 1192 It's a good idea to remember the sequence of events leading up to the appointment of the General.
However, if you learned in 1185 in a school class, you may take a test at [Iihako] at that school, so please adopt it. However, for nationwide entrance exams, I think the flow of establishment of the shogunate is more important than the year. In the first place, it is not history to remember the era academically ...
This Minamoto no Yoritomo The Kamakura Shogunate was built by 1333 after a turbulent era such as the two original invasions. Takauji Ashikaga Destroyed by, ending the 150-year history.
Shogun Genji The fact that the system of the shogunate continued for 150 years, although it was cut off in the third generation, shows how excellent the "organization called the Kamakura shogunate" created by Yoritomo was. This political model was later Muromachi Shogunate, Tokugawa Shogunate It will be inherited through repeated improvements.