I've been writing articles about the flow of the Muromachi and Nanbokucho periods, but I asked, "Why did the flow of defeating the Kamakura Shogunate come about as a common understanding among many people? I didn't write the background to the destruction of the shogunate.
This time, I will talk about the defeat movement from the perspective of the governing body of the Kamakura Shogunate.
The situation of the Gokenin in the Kamakura period
The relationship between the shogun and the gokenin is connected by a relationship called grace-hokō.
As shown in the figure above, the social system that establishes a master-slave relationship through "land" is called "feudal system", and after this "feudal system" is laid down (=feudal society), "capitalist society". It is said to move to.
If you use the land and do the same work every time, you will pursue efficiency and increase productivity
⇒ If you can afford to increase productivity, you will notice other interesting things
⇒ You will be able to exchange interesting products for surplus crops
⇒Crops may rot to replace ...
⇒ Development of the monetary economy
⇒ Toward a capitalist society
This "development of the monetary economy" will be one of the factors that the Gokenin will drive in later.
It is a feudal master-slave relationship between the shogun and the gokenin, but of the services that the gokenin performs to the shogun, the expenses related to the war are basically done by the gokenin himself. This fact will also hunt down the Gokenin later, so please leave it in the corner of your head.
Furthermore, at that time, land and other property were divided regardless of gender or birth order (=split inheritance). When the land of the parents' generation is divided into brothers and sisters, the lower the age, the 'prone to be equally poor' . As you can imagine, the situation will occur.
This is bad, so in the latter half of the Kamakura period, it changed from split inheritance to single inheritance. Who will inherit it is basically Firstborn (the eldest son of Seishitsu).
However, the method of inheritance of the family reign that was practiced in the Kamakura period was sovereignty . ..
Sorrow The most dexterous Dekir person among his brothers was in that position .. During the split inheritance, the clan will manage the farmland with the territory as the leader, and in an emergency, the territory will be the leader to create a battle group.
Since the ordinary children also had land, each of them had economic power, if not equality, so in a sense, they were able to engage in farmland management and combat in the form of a partner. is.
If that territorial system collapses and it becomes a form of farmland management like the management by firstborn, the prince will be treated like a vassal of the 嫡子. If you become a firstborn with inferior ability, uninteresting people will be born. By creating a clear hierarchical relationship, it becomes easier for the firstborn leader to take an arrogant attitude (compared to the sovereignty system) than when he was a business partner. From such a background, the number of firstborns who leave the firstborn will increase. The fact that the foundation for accepting people even if they leave their respective territories is being created due to changes in social conditions is also one of the reasons for the increase in the number of children who leave their territories.
Samurai life and the penetration of the monetary economy
The master-slave relationship between the shogun and the gokenin is as shown in the figure above, but please pay attention to the part where the salary from the shogun is "land". Furthermore, many samurai at this time inherited the lineage as a development lord (=a person who developed rice fields and acquired a territory) after the cloister rule when the samurai began to expand their power.
The income of the Gokenin is the income from the land (basically rice). As long as the gokenin serves the shogunate, if there is any work, he will leave his territory or territory and undertake the work on his own, but he must prepare for it by "selling rice". Income changes due to price fluctuations in rice, and necessary supplies are also greatly affected by price fluctuations.
Furthermore, the place where the Gokenin goes on a business trip away from the territory for work is basically a big city. It will be Kyo or Kamakura. Life in such a place cannot be achieved without using money. In the countryside, you will see various products in the city, so you will be able to grow your hands more and more. It's still the case, but it can be painful if you spend a small amount of money.
As the number of poor gokenins increased, the number of people who managed to eat while selling land or borrowing money with land as collateral gradually and surely increased.
The turning point of the Kamakura Shogunate, the invasion of Mongolia
Under such circumstances, in the Kamakura period, a ridiculously large nation appeared on the continent across the sea. Mongol Empire , which boasts the scale of competing for 1st and 2nd place in the history of the world (Later original).
The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206, and has steadily expanded its power to the generations of children, grandchildren, and so on.
* The total area is larger in the British Empire, but in Mongolia, it is larger in terms of the number of people (population ratio). Since the times are different, the population of the world is also different, and if you look at the number of people alone, the British Empire has a share, but in terms of ratio, Mongolia is higher. In the case of Mongolia, it controlled 25% of the world's population.
Originally Mongolia is a region known for its extremely harsh climate. The dry climate peculiar to the continent makes winter extremely cold. It is said that the climate was slightly humid around the time when Mongolia expanded its empire. Rain brings fertile land, which raises strong horses and creates strong troops. It may have been inevitable that the army became stronger because it used to produce "army rice that expands just by pouring hot water" in the cold and dry climate long ago.
The Mongol Empire, which expanded its power in this way, changed its name to the original one and began to extend its index finger to Japan.
What are the three reasons why Yuan came to Japan?
It is often said that the reason is
- Because he did not attack the Song Dynasty (also known as the Southern Song Dynasty) in southern China, he tried to establish a relationship with Japan, which was trading with Song, and isolate it.
- In reaction to the rapid expansion of power, a counter-organization was formed in the former country, so I tried to isolate it.
- Japan at that time was one of the world's leading gold producers
For the above reasons, I originally sent a messenger to the Kamakura Shogunate to "submit." When supplies are sent from the other side of the sea, there is no limit. The strategy of cutting off supply routes has not changed.
Japan decided to "ignore" after repeated discussions, but in the diplomacy at that time, there was no reply of "ignore", and the answer was not clear, so the original sent messengers multiple times.
What is the impact of the Mongol invasion on Japan? ??
Japan is prepared to use force as a result of "ignoring" it. When the original messenger came for the first time in 1268, 18-year-old Hojo Tokimune was appointed as the authority. Concentrate the power of authority , Try to deal with the national crisis.
Eventually, he succeeded in rejecting the two invasions of Mongolia, but the Mongol invasion left a great influence on the Kamakura Shogunate.
- Concentration of power on Mr. Hojo
- I couldn't get a new land on a large line of defense, so I couldn't get a reward (=gratitude) according to the work.
It is certain that these alone led to dissatisfaction with the Kamakura Shogunate.
By the way, as a result of concentrating power to counter the former, Mr. Hojo is supposed to occupy more than half of the guardians at that time.
It is difficult to let go of the privilege once you have it. But I have to get rid of my dissatisfaction.
For that reason, the move I took was Tokuseirei . is.
The idea is to "return the land to its original owner," which was sold because of the hardships of life.
Basically, it was the samurai of the West who took up military service in the Mongol invasion. The gokenin at that time refers to the samurai who had a master-slave relationship with the shogun of the shogunate. The battlefield is Kyushu in the Mongol invasion. Saigoku has stronger imperial courts and aristocrats than the shogunate, so there are only samurai other than gokenins.
For the samurai other than the Gokenin, the enforcement of the Tokuseirei, which is clearly the purpose of salvation for the Gokenin, seems to have become a case in which it seems that only the Gokenin was favored even though he fought for his life. In addition, the family members were forced into a situation where they could not borrow money because they made a loan.
Birth of a villain
Rogues are those who have been subdued by the Kamakura Shogunate by committing opposition parties, robbery, bandits, piracy, etc. It seems that the invaders from outside the rule system were generally called villains. It was extremely repulsive to the shogunate and the villa.
Of course, I was dissatisfied with the change in the socio-economic situation after the Mongol invasion that led to such an action. As the number of gokenins who escape from the territory increases, the number of cases where the children become villains also increases.
When a villain appears and its existence becomes a matter of course, this time, a trend like "it's cool to be evil" is born. At this point, the soil for the later "Basara Daimyo" was created.
It is said that Masashige Kusunoki, who seems to be competing for 1st and 2nd place in terms of his contribution to Emperor Go-Daigo and his degree of famousness, was from this "villain". The soil where security deteriorated and the rebels grew was growing after the Mongol invasion.
What is the result of the Kamakura Shogunate and the imperial court approaching each other? ??
Kamakura-dono (Shogun) died in the third generation after Minamoto no Yoritomo, and Fujiwara became a shogun for two consecutive generations ... In 1252, the imperial prince was welcomed to Kamakura-dono from the imperial court. Since then, the relationship between the shogunate and the imperial court has become very close, and the number of talks from the shogunate has increased.
"Even if you decide, you will be complained."
And the 88th Emperor Gosaga (reigned 1242-1246, who was in a position to be uttered by the Shogunate by the prince of Jiten when he welcomed Kamakura-dono) was in the 90th generation while he was in the cloister rule and had a voice. Demise in 1272 without deciding the succession of Emperor Kameyama (reigned 1260-1274). This triggered the start of the two royal courts, and the imperial court was in turmoil.
When the Mongol invasion (1274, 1281) began, the shogunate's side, which basically suppresses the military aspect, would have increased further. For those in the position of the imperial court, the shogunate became a lump above the eyes.
Moreover, some emperors are unable to put their bloodline on the throne because not only their own lineage is on the throne. Succession to the throne that can not be done as expected with the noisy shogunate. It was Emperor Go-Daigo who was dissatisfied here.
From the perspective of Emperor Go-Daigo, he may have found the possibility of "turning the anti-curtain group into a mikoshi", and conversely, a person who came closer to knowing that "Emperor Go-Daigo is an anti-curtain group". May have been there.
I don't know which one was the first to set it up, but because of the social contradictions that have accumulated since the early days of the Kamakura period, it seems that people who only plan and execute the defeat plan have not gathered. Is it? The Kamakura Shogunate was destroyed in 1333, even though it managed to survive for a while.