History of Asia

Town planning in Edo by Ieyasu Tokugawa

Last updated:2022-07-25

1590 after the death of Mr. Hojo in Odawara Kampaku ・ Toyotomi Hideyoshi Ieyasu Tokugawa ordered to transfer to Kanto .. Edo around this time was Ota Dokan Built by Edo Castle However, the vast wetlands spread out and the population was smaller than that of Odawara, so it was an area that was not suitable for Ieyasu, the great lord of the time.

In addition, since there was Kamakura, the center of the Kamakura Shogunate, in the Kanto region, it seems that some of the vassals recommended that urban development be carried out centered on Kamakura. However, Ieyasu chose Edo as his new base in anticipation of the future of the land of Edo, not Odawara or Kamakura.

Edo was created with reference to the city of Osaka

First, Ieyasu did Edo Castle renovation work is.

Since the castle was small at the time of entering Edo Castle, it was necessary to further strengthen its defense in order to avoid the invasion of enemies. Therefore, we reclaimed the sea that had entered the inland area to the extent that it covered a part of the current Imperial Palace, and carried out large-scale construction such as changing the flow of the river. Before)】 I built a castle.

In parallel with that, we will carry out major construction based on our own city planning such as reclamation of the beach area with reference to the town of Osaka. What Edo and Osaka have in common is that the flat land opens toward the sea and many rivers flow into the bay. Ieyasu, who was at the center of the Toyotomi administration at that time, would have known more than enough about the town of Osaka.

In particular, Ieyasu thought that the area near the mouth of the Sumida River has the potential to develop as a pier, and if it is improved, it will be the starting point for distribution from the Kanto area. So he carved Mt. Kanda, carried the soil to reclaim the sea, and expanded the town.

Then, when the Dosanbori was built in the eastern part of the current Imperial Palace, ships were able to carry supplies inland. At the same time, the Onagi and Kanda river floodways were created, further facilitating the transportation of goods to and from the inland areas.

Under the order of the lord Ieyasu, the city planning of Edo worked well on the schedule and worked the vassals. Ieyasu's vassals diligently created the town of Edo, and the temperament was inherited by Edokko.

The disappearance of the town of Edo due to a large fire

Often [ fires and fights are the flowers of Edo It was a fire city where the word "] remained.

Even from a global perspective, there are few examples of fires burning down vast urban areas.

1657 Meireki Fire * Most of the town of Edo created by Ieyasu will be burned down.

Even the castle tower of Edo Castle, which was a symbol of the Tokugawa Shogunate, was burnt down.

Here, the Tokugawa Shogunate will rebuild the town of Edo from scratch. At this time, the castle tower, which is the authority of the samurai, was not rebuilt because the world of Tokugawa was immovable. * I would like to write the story of the great fire in Edo in one article.

For the concrete reconstruction of the town of Edo, the daimyo families of various clan were used and their money was used to rebuild the town. Upper mansion , the official mansion of the daimyo Is located in the center of Edo, Nakayashiki, Shimoyashiki Was deliberately made in the suburbs.

Of course, we will provide land, but each clan owns the construction cost.

In addition, those who build these mansions, those who support their lives, and even merchants came from all over the world, and small towns of daimyo families were formed here and there in Edo. Eventually, the gathered craftsmen and merchants settled in Edo, and over the years, [ Edokko ], And the population has increased explosively.

The town development of Edo after the great fire of the Meireki was the 4th Shogun Ietsuna It was during the Edo period, but Ieyasu learned a lot about the early Edo period and proceeded with the construction. We have created a world-class metropolis by inheriting the people and culture gathered from these various regions and the clear vision of Ieyasu's creation of Edo.

What is a daimyo mansion?

Here upper mansion, middle mansion, lower mansion I came up with the word, so I would like to explain about the daimyo mansion.

During this period, the shogunate gave land to the daimyo to live in Edo, and each daimyo built a mansion as a residence there.

In the great fire of the Meireki calendar mentioned above, more than 500 daimyo mansions were burned down, and in the subsequent reconstruction, the main houses of the daimyo and feudal lords became [ upper mansions . It was built in the center of Edo as a [ Nakayashiki where the former feudal lord who took a trace and retired lived. ], In the suburbs of Edo [ Shimoyashiki ], A separate house was also built.