History of Europe

Is it a hero? Dictator? Oliver Cromwell, leader of the Puritan Revolution

In the history of the world, there are many people whose reputation is shaken, but Oliver Cromwell, who became the central figure of the Puritan Revolution, can be said to be the representative.

Prestigious Gentry class

Oliver Cromwell was born in England in 1599 as a Gentry class.

Britain is still a country with strict social status, and there are various disparities between aristocrats and those who do not.

In such a situation, Gentry was not an aristocrat, but had power and wealth as a landlord, and his voice was getting stronger day by day.

Oliver, a natural Puritan, studied at the University of Cambridge and became a member of the Common People's Assembly in 1628.

Since that time, Britain has a bicameral system of the House of Commons and the House of Commons, and the system in which the two chambers are lined up in this way was later adopted by the United States and Japan.

1628 is the year when the famous "Petition of Right" was issued, and the next 1629 is the year Charles I dissolved the parliament.

Cromwell, who lost his parliamentary position, returned to his hometown and worked hard to run the farm while serving as a judge.

When Charles I opened a parliament in the wake of the Scottish rebellion, Cromwell was also elected as a member of parliament, and in the split parliament, Cromwell belonged to a parliamentary group aiming for parliament-centered politics, with members of the royal group and the king. There was a fierce conflict.

Battle with the Royal Army

Charles I sent the Royal Army to Parliament to purge the opposition Parliamentary factions.

In the Battle of Edgehill, the Royal Army defeats the Parliamentary Army, but Cromwell invests his own money to form a corps of 1000 people, which is called the Ironside.

Cromwell's fighting strength is extraordinary. Even in world history, few people have overwhelmed others so far. Considering his winning percentage, Napoleon is not a problem, and it may be a level comparable to even the ancient Roman hero Scipio Africanus.

Cromwell fought in the Scottish Rebel Alliance Battle of Marston Moor He made a name for himself when he dismissed the Royal Army, reorganized a parliamentary army called New Model Army, and became his adjutant.

In 1645, King Charles I went into exile in Scotland after a decisive victory in the Battle of Naseby. However, Scotland is already on the side of the Parliamentary faction, and the king's identity will be sent under the supervision of the Parliamentary faction.

Wars of the Three Kingdoms (Puritan Revolution)

After winning the Battle of Nesby, Congress split into several factions. It is divided into elders who aim for a policy that is compatible with the king, royalists who are trying to regain the royal power, and independents led by Cromwell. , Takes the lead in a battle between parliamentary factions called the English Civil War.

Furthermore, within the parliament, he ordered Captain Pride to occupy the parliament, later directed an exile drama called Pride's Purge, expelled members such as the elders, and carried out the operation of the parliament only by independents (in history, this parliament). Is called the remnant parliament or the rump parliament).

Rump Parliament, led by Cromwell, declares the abolition of the Kingdom of England and the establishment of the Commonwealth of England, and executes King Charles I of the Stewart dynasty.

The execution of the king was an unprecedented event in the long history of Europe. In ancient Rome, there were many assassinations by the Guard, but nonetheless, they were not executed openly, and it is still a debate about why Cromwell was so violent.

Battle with Ireland, Scotland and the Netherlands

Great Britain is now called Commonwealth, the United Kingdom of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom).

As was the case in England during this period, Cromwell disrespected Scotland and executed the king at his own discretion. The Stewart family, the royal family, was originally a Scottish royal family, and the selfish execution of the king naturally stimulated Scotland.

Scotland plans an invasion of England with Ireland.

But perhaps Cromwell was reading this move, he quickly landed in Dublin when he sent to Ireland, and slaughtered the Irish in a historic and gruesome way when he conquered each base.

This is a level that has left a grudge between the two countries and has not been resolved as of 2019.

If you conquer Ireland, you will quickly face the battle with Scotland, and you will win the Battle of Dunbar and the Battle of Worcester in a row.

Furthermore, although it was not the idea of ​​Cromwell himself, when the "Navigation Act" that restricted the voyage of the Netherlands was enacted, a war broke out with the Netherlands and the Anglo-Dutch War broke out.

Lord Protector (Registside)

"British history begins when Julius Caesar steps into Britain."

That's what later British Prime Minister Winston Churchill said, but Britain's political system is heavily influenced by Rome.

Cromwell was just a commoner. He therefore revived the Roman tribune system, and he changed his name to Lord Protector and took office as himself.

The Roman tribune system was literally intended to protect the commoners, but there is a section used for dictatorship by the first emperor Augustus, Octavian.

Cromwell, following Augustus, actually dictated while protecting the people before the construction.

Cromwell also proudly declared himself a Lord Protector for life, perhaps imitating Julius Caesar, and would remain in power.

However, he has refused to make Cromwell the king, and it remains unclear what Cromwell was really aiming for. Napoleon and others were inaugurated as emperors until they held the coronation by themselves, even though it was the incarnation of the desire for power, but Cromwell may not have such an ambition.

However, Cromwell's office was as luxurious as his royal era, and his life was like a prince.

Cromwell's death

Cromwell died suddenly as he worked diligently to peace with the Netherlands, restore diplomatic relations with Sweden, Denmark and Portugal, declare war on Spain, and occupy Jamaica.

The year before his death, the Jewish expulsion was lifted, and for the first time in 350 years since Edward I, the Jews would step on the soil of Britain, which would significantly change the history of Britain.

His Lord Protector status was taken over by his son Richard, who soon resigned. Britain will be on the road to restoration.

With the death of Cromwell, the political change called the Puritan Revolution, or the War of the Three Kingdoms, came to an end.

After the restoration of the royal government, Cromwell's body was dug up from Westminster Abbey, hanged and beheaded despite being dead, and his neck was hung in Westminster Abbey for over 20 years, eventually. He is sleeping at his alma mater, Cambridge University.

He is 59 years old.

Personal evaluation of Cromwell

No one is as difficult to evaluate as Cromwell.

In history, there are clear masters, clear excellent generals, or clear incompetences, clear dark princes and tyrants.

However, there is a person who seems to be a tyrant while being a great prince. For example, Qin Shi Huang.

First of all, Cromwell is an excellent military commander rarely seen in world history. He has overwhelmingly dispelled the Royal, Presbyterian, Royalist, Scottish, and Irish troops.

Was he excellent as a head of state?

From today's democratic point of view, his aim for dictatorship would be a big negative.

The Puritan Revolution arose from the King's non-compliance with Parliament in the first place. Nevertheless, Cromwell also dissolved the parliament and dictated dictatorship. There is no match for Cromwell's armed forces, and it can be said that there is virtually no difference from the absolute monarchy.

And the fact that he revolutionized with force and executed the king is given only a negative evaluation from a modern point of view and from any time in the future.

This is like a communist revolution.

Britain has blamed the communist revolution on behalf of the West, but it would be safe to say that it was not qualified to blame.

However, Britain did not maintain Cromwell's regime, so that point can be said to be salvation. It can be said that the incident that occurred in 1688 was an "Glorious Revolution" in that sense as well.

And Cromwell's biggest minus would be the slaughter in Ireland.

This is, in a sense, a Protestant massacre of catholics, but I personally think that nothing is as bad as a massacre for religious reasons, so I would like to evaluate Cromwell on this point alone. do not have.

Christians are mysterious and seem to have more hatred for different denominations than for pagans. Since the heathen is a person who has not awakened yet, he is also a person who will awaken from now on, but the difference in denomination seems to have lost the temptation of the devil.

Cromwell's assessment is largely divided among experts. Locke describes Cromwell's execution of the king as "a disgraceful case caused by a greedy mob."

Some have described Cromwell as one of Britain's leading heroes.

In my opinion, a hero is a person who gives light to the world.

However, Cromwell gave slaughter and dictatorship, which seems far from a hero.

However, Cromwell has had a great influence on the history of Britain and the world. In particular, the abolition of the Jewish expulsion order made Rothschild and other Jewish capital significantly involved in politics, and it can be said that it greatly promoted the development of the British Empire.

No matter how you evaluate it, Cromwell will undoubtedly have had a great impact on the rest of the world.

The strongest commander and the biggest trickster in British history, that is his personal reputation for Cromwell.