Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. In 1789, then Count of Artois, he was one of the first to emigrate. In 1824, he acceded to the throne and showed himself faithful to his absolutist positions, choosing as minister Villèle, whose authoritarian policy reinforced the opposition movements which asserted themselves under the semi-liberal ministry of Martignac (1828-1829). Thinking of stopping their progress, the king appealed to the prince of Polignac:the Polignac cabinet was rejected by the Chamber, which was dissolved. The elections gave the majority to the opposition. The king replied with the orders of Saint-Cloud (25 July 1830), the direct cause of the revolution of 1830, and chose to abdicate. Under his reign began the conquest of Algeria (1830).
Aid-de-camp of Rossignol in Vendée. He will accompany Bonaparte to Italy, where he covers himself with glory. He sits on the left of the Council of Five Hundred. He actively participated in the coup detat of Fructidor. After having condemned the 18 Brumaire, he joined Napoleon who made him Marshal o