Historical Figures

Louis IX – Saint Louis

Louis IX lost his father Louis VIII at the age of 12, so he was educated to reign by his mother, Blanche de Castille, who had become regent. During his reign, the king pacified his kingdom during the Treaty of Paris in 1259 which put an end to the conflict between France and England. He reforms the administration of his country, creates the Parliament (1254), the Sorbonne (1257), imposes its currency, develops trade routes and strengthens the stability of the country. The intellectual and cultural development of France shines on the surrounding courts. He launched his first crusade (1248-1254) to convert Muslims. He also fought against the Cathars, the Jews, with whom he was so intransigent that the pope urged him to show clemency (1268). Having a relic of the crown of Christ, he built a case all in stained glass:the Sainte Chapelle (1248). In addition, he is of great piety and great charity towards the poor:he founds hospitals and monasteries, prohibits duels; the one called Saint Louis is often represented at the foot of an oak tree under which he renders justice. He died in Carthage during his second Crusade. He will be canonized in 1297.

April 25, 1214 - August 25, 1270


Head of State

King of France

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