José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera, forerunner of independence , known as Tupac Amaru II . He was born in the Cuzco cacicazgo of Surimana, in the neighborhood of Arco Punco, on March 19, 1740 . Son of the legitimate union of the cacique Miguel Condorcanqui Usquiconsa with Doña Rosa Noguera Valenzuela, who lived in the cacicazgo received from his elder. He was baptized in Tungasuca by the priest Santiago López in the parish church of San Felipe, on the first day of May 1738. He descended by female straight line from the Inca Tupac Amaru , son of Manco Inca and grandson of Huayna Capac executed by Viceroy Toledo in 1572.
|Data on Tupac Amaru II
|March 19, 1740 in Surimana, Peru
|May 18, 1781 in Cusco, Peru
|José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera
|Uprising and rebellion against the colony
José Gabriel was physically and spiritually mestizo:next to his Inca memories and traditions, refreshed by the environment and by the proximity of the remains of the past empire, were his ideas and his Hispanic formation, all integrated. In October 1741 he lost his mother, then his older brother would die, leaving him as his father's successor. His education was entrusted to two tutors:the priest of Yanaoca, Dr. Carlos Rodríguez de Ávila, a native of Guayaquil, and the priest of Pampamarca, Dr. Antonio López de Sosa, a native of Panama. In 1748 his father enrolled him in the San Francisco de Borja school for caciques, run by Jesuits. On the death of his father (April 19, 1750) he remained as heir to the cacicazgo, but due to his minority, his paternal uncle Marcos Condorcan-qui and then his maternal uncle José Noguera had to exercise the tutorship of the cacicazgo. . José Gabriel studied until 1758 and then returned to Surimana to relieve his uncles.
On May 25, 1760, he married Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua, with whom he apparently was related. From their marriage union three children were born:Hipólito (Surimana, 1761), Mariano (Tungasuca, 1762) and Fernando (Tungasuca, 1768). At this time, the chief Condorcanqui dedicated himself to the transport of merchandise on a large scale, trading with Lima, Cuzco, Potosí and Buenos Aires, for which he had his 35 trains of mules that transported sugar, tocuyos and quicksilver. Due to his work, he had another house in San Bartolomé de Tinta that served as his home and as an operational center. He traveled constantly, which allowed him to know in depth the situation of the other natives.
Túpac Amaru II knows the reality of the indigenous people
In order to be officially recognized as cacique and legitimate successor of the towns of Surimana, Pampamarca and Tungasuca, he appeared in October 1766 before the corregidor of Tinta Don Pedro Muñoz de Arjona. Once his position was recognized, he assumed as titular curaca the obligations of governing his Indian vassals, collecting tribute from them and then giving it to the corregidor, as well as ensuring the good doctrinal treatment, conservation and increase of these subjects. At all times he was a zealous defender of his Indians, protesting against the authoritarian attitudes of the corregidor or mistreatment, but he was always respectful of the Crown's mandates. In April 1777 he traveled to Lima to clarify his right to request the marquisate of Oropesa, which was disputed by Diego Felipe de Betancourt, a dispute that was raised before the Royal Court. In Lima he befriends Miguel Montiel y Surco, a great admirer of the English system, who invited him to his house on Calle de la Concepción. Once the problem was resolved before the Royal Court, the judges declared José Gabriel a descendant of the Incas of Vilcabamba, with the right to continue possessing the chiefdoms of Surimana, Pampamarca and Tungasuca.
But while he was litigating with the Betancourts, he was also taking steps in favor of the natives of the Tinta corregimiento, to exonerate them from the mita service. He had already tried unsuccessfully in Cuzco and this time he could not achieve justice either; but he did not give up:he wrote a document and submitted it on December 18, 1877, failing again.
Start of the Túpac Amaru II uprising
Disillusioned by viceregal injustice, he decided to hasten his return to Tungasuca, arriving there in June 1778, learning that the corregidor had changed; He decides to appear before the new authority, Antonio de Arriaga, and offer him his services, which were well accepted, establishing a relative friendship between these two characters. However, shortly after Arriaga would exorbitantly raise the distribution of merchandise, before which José Gabriel had to claim. On another occasion when he had not been able to collect the taxes, the corregidor was furious and told him that he should leave the cacicazgo if he did not collect the corresponding tribute. Tupac Amaru decided to rebel and started the uprising on November 4, 1780 , after a party held in celebration of the birth of Carlos III. He took Arriaga prisoner and took him to Tungasuca, forcing him to sign a letter addressed to Mendieta's cashier, in which he ordered her to remit all available funds and all attainable weapons. Once the commission was obtained from him, Tupac Amaru initiates a process against Arriaga, who is sentenced to hang and executed on November 10. The caudillo leaves the next day for Quiquijana, where he distributes the wool from a mill, frees the prisoners and issues a proclamation for the liberation of the blacks . After his victory in Sangarará on the 18th, he launched constant proclamations calling for the union of mestizo, black, and Indian Creoles. The latter were so divided that some decided to join the royalists and others joined the rebellion; among the royalist caciques Mateo Pumacahua stands out, among the rebels the caciques of Acos, Tomasa Tito Condemayta.
Tupac Amaru toured the southern towns in order to extend his movement:he was in Chumbivilcas Lampa, Azangaro, Ayaviri, Pucará, Pumacanchi, Quiquijana; he traveled in this way throughout the Collasuyo, returning to Tinta on December 17. Meanwhile, in Lima they had learned of the rebellion, forming an extraordinary meeting presided over by Viceroy Jáuregui and made up of the inspector general Antonio de Areche and the hearers of the Royal Court. Areche prepared an expedition to defeat the movement. Tupac Amaru II decides to march towards Cuzco on December 20, 1780, but he is forced to withdraw, as royalist reinforcements had arrived. He is finally defeated at Tinta on April 6, 1781; he tried to flee but was betrayed by his compadre, the mestizo Francisco Santa Cruz and handed over to the royalists at Langui. Taken prisoner with his family, relatives and other supporters of his, he was taken to Cuzco and subjected to cruel torture. On May 15, 1781 he was sentenced to death . The sentence stipulated that he should see his wife, children and collaborators die; then his tongue would be cut out and his arms and legs would be tied to four horses until he was dismembered. he was served three days later and on May 18, 1781 he was executed , but the horses could not fulfill his mission, having to be beheaded. His body was reduced to ashes and taken along with those of his wife to Cerro Picchu, where they were scattered. Defeated and dead, the rebel nevertheless won the battle, since the post of corregidor was abolished and the Cuzco hearing was created, in order to achieve a better administration of justice. This rebellion was continental in scope and it was some time before the region was fully pacified.