Historical Figures

Tupac Inca Yupanqui

Tupac Inca Yupanqui was an Inca, son of Pachacutec and Mama Anahuarque . When he was approximately 16 years old, his father appointed him as correinante and he was an effective helper and collaborator. He was a born warrior and expanded the borders of the empire as an invincible conqueror. He first reinforced the fortresses in the kingdom of Cuzco and went north crushing the pocras of Huamanga, he continued towards Jauja and in Chinchaycocha he founded the llacta (city) of Pumpu. In Huaylas, as a precaution, he dismantled the native fortresses of Chungomarca and Pillaguamarca. From there he turned east, conquered Huánuco and founded the llacta of Huanuco Pampa. He advanced to Cajamarca and established his headquarters there, base of operations from where he headed towards the coast to conquer the Chimor kingdom . The war lasted several years as the Chimús bravely resisted; The resistance was only defeated when the waters of the Moche River were diverted towards the sandbanks, with which Chan Chan was left without supplies. Later he went to conquer the Chachapoyas, Huambos, Tobacconas and Guayacondos. He triumphantly advanced as far as Quito and Cayambe, reaching as far south as the Carangue kingdom. He returned to Cuzco with a large booty and rested from his conquests for two years. During that time he married Mama Ocllo, his father's sister.
He left on a new expedition to the north with the aim of consolidating the total conquest of the huayacondos. He continued towards the kingdom of Paita, which he divided into small lordships to reduce its strength and importance, just as his father had done with the Ayarmaca, and as his son Huayna Capac would do years later with him. Chimor kingdom.
He later invaded the kingdom of the Cañaris, who offered fierce resistance, but finally defeated them, founding the llacta Tumebamba and building the Quinche fortress in the Quito region. Some time later his son Cusi Huallpa (the future Huayna Capac) would be born in that town by his wife Mama Ocllo. Later he went down to the northern coast with the purpose of conquering Chono, Huancavilca, Paches and the Puna. It was a painful expedition, the tropical climate affected his troops, who were all mountain rangers, but he was the winner nonetheless. It was on the coast where he learned of some distant islands and decided to go after them, enlisted an impressive fleet of rafts and set sail with twenty thousand men, arriving at islands called Ninchumbi and Aguacchumbi. Some historians think that he arrived in Polynesia, specifically Mangareva Island , where in the 18th century its inhabitants told a legend of the arrival of a chief called the Inca, who came from the east. The same story exists in the Marquesas Islands. The truth is that he returned after two years bringing with him black people, brass chairs, hides and horse jaws that were preserved in the fortress of Sacsayhuamán.
He landed on the shores of Guayas and went up to Tumebamba, picked up his wife and little Titu Cusí Huallpa, continuing his march back to the city of Cuzco. In Paramonga he had a temple dedicated to the Sun built, then continued to the Pachacamac sanctuary where he fasted for 40 days. He continued his march ascending through Huarochirí until he reached Jauja. His reception in Cuzco was lavish:thirty thousand people came out to greet him on the outskirts of the city, combats were staged, the festivities lasted several days and were planned by his father Pachacutec to symbolize the full power that the empire had achieved, since there were no powerful kingdoms left.

Promotion to Inca of Tupac Inca Yupanqui

When Pachacutec died, around 1471, the purucaya rites (funerals) were held, which included sacrifices of children and women. Tupac Inca Yupanqui was then enthroned, who, by then, was a man seasoned in warrior tactics and an excellent administrator, having behind him a whole experience in the correinado. His political and military work focused on expanding the borders of the empire while maintaining order and peace. He prepared an army and marched towards Antisuyo, which he entered through three sectors:Aguatoma, Amaro and Pilcopata. In this campaign he was aided by two other brave warriors:Otoronco Achachi and Chalco Yupanqui. They entered the jungle and conquered the tribes of Yanasimi, Otapari and Manu. Another of his generals, Cusi Rimachi, following the Camata route, arrived at Paititi. The interest in these regions was to stock up on exotic birds, medicinal herbs and chonta wood that they used in the manufacture of their spears, and also to gain land that was destined for coca. While on this expedition he was warned by his brother Amaro Yupanqui of an uprising by the Collas who, aided by the Puquinas and the Omasu-yos, were marching on Cuzco. The conflict lasted for two years, culminating in the victory of Tupac Yupanqui, and in order to consolidate his victory, it was necessary to invade Colla territory, reaching as far as Charcas. He remained there for a time reorganizing his army and preparing a new conquest. From Charcas he headed south and invaded Araucanian territory, subduing the kings Michimalongo and Tangalongo. He continued his march attacking Purén and Tucapel, stopping at the Maulé River, where he thought it convenient to transfer Colla populations as mitimaes. He returned to Cuzco where he managed to impose tight political control. Also, for better administration, he he divided the empire into four regions:Chinchaysuyo, Antisuyo, Collasuyo and Contisuyo . All of them converged in Cuzco, considered for that reason the center of the world. He died in Chinchero in 1493, said to have been poisoned by one of his concubines called Chuqui Ocho. His lineage was called Capac Ayllu.

  • Xenophon

    Unlike what happens with Herodotus and Thucydides, we have more information about Xenophons biography thanks to the references to his life contained in his works and to the writings of Diogenes Laertius. Xenophon was born in Athens in 430 BC. During the Peloponnesian War, in the bosom of a wealthy f

  • August

    Augustus is the first Roman emperor. He is Caesars great-nephew and adopted son. On his death, Octave (first name of Augustus), Marc-Antoine and Lépide form a triumvirate and share the world. The naval victory of Actium in 31 BC. J.-C consecrates him master of the lands and the seas by definitively

  • Caracalla

    Son of Septimius Severus, Caracalla is known not only for his taste for war, but above all for his various reforms, in particular the Edict of Caracalla, as well as for the construction in Rome of the baths that bear his name. Very early associated with the political life of the empire, Caracalla a

  • Charles X

    Grandson of Louis XV, Charles X, then Count of Artois, had to leave the country after the storming of the Bastille. During his emigration to England, he took part in the counter-revolutionary struggle and tried to unite the European emigrant forces against the French revolutionary regime. Recognize