Throughout the history of England, some women have played a decisive role in the political sphere. Among these women, we can highlight Queen Elizabeth I, in the 16th century, and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, in the 20th century, who, respectively:
a) conquered a vast territory in Asia, becoming sovereign of India; she refused to get involved in the Falklands War against Argentina.
b) fought Anglicanism in his country, contradicting the legacy of Henry VIII; promoted a series of socialist reforms that benefited the English working class.
c) completed the Anglican reform work of Henry VIII, her father; fought English trade unionism and implemented liberal measures in the economy of England.
d) followed the precepts of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, applying them to her reign; followed the precepts of Marxism, applying them in his political-economic project in the 1980s.
e) had no difficulty in being accepted as queen after the death of her father, Henry VIII; she did not need to be a member of the British Parliament to be elevated to Prime Minister.question 2
(FEI-SP, adapted) More than six hundred years ago, Saint Joan of Arc was born in Domrémy (France). At age 19, she became a heroine and martyr for religion. Joan of Arc's life is associated with:
a) Hundred Years' War, which indicates the armed conflicts between France and the Holy Roman Empire resulting from rivalries between Catholics and Protestants.
b) War of the Two Roses, dynastic struggles carried out for the succession to the throne of France during the 15th century.
c) Thirty Years' War, which took place between France and Spain during the Habsburg dynasty. In this conflict, Joan of Arc was burned at the stake by the Spanish Inquisition.
d) Hundred Years' War, which indicates a series of armed conflicts between England and France between the 14th and 15th centuries.
e) Expansion of the Frankish Kingdom, which, by incorporating most of Western and Central Europe, shaped the Carolingian Empire.question 3
Among the main women who stood out in the Ancient Age are Cleopatra and Roxane, who were, respectively:
a) queen of Egypt in the 1st century BC; Queen of the Phoenicians, 3rd century BC
b) queen of Egypt in the 1st century BC; wife of Alexander the Great of Macedonia.
c) queen of the Persians, wife of Cyrus the Great; wife of Alexander the Great of Macedonia.
d) Celtic empress, who lived in the 3rd century BC; Queen of Egypt in the 1st century.
e) queen of the Phoenicians, in the 3rd century BC; Empress of Babylon, wife of Nebuchadnezzar.question 4
(FGV) “Chiquinha Gonzaga aligns herself with other female figures of the Empire (...) such as Empress Leopoldina and Anita Garibaldi. All three, although in different ways, from different social origins and, at different times, played a political role that certainly contributed to the changes they defended and inscribed them in the History of Brazil”. (Suely Robles Reis de Queiroz, Politics and culture in the Brazilian empire . 2010). In political terms, Empress Leopoldina, Anita Garibaldi and Chiquinha Gonzaga, respectively:
a) acted, alongside Dom Pedro and José Bonifácio, in the process of political emancipation in Brazil; participated in the longest regency rebellion, the Farroupilha; fought for the abolition of slavery and the fall of the Monarchy.
b) articulated the Brazilian constitutional bench in the Constituent Assembly; he organized the popular forces participating in the regency rebellion that took place in Grão-Pará, the Cabanagem; was the first Brazilian woman to be elected to the Senate during the Empire.
c) convinced Dom Pedro I to assume the Portuguese throne after the death of King Dom João VI; defended the expansion of citizenship rights during the constitutional reform that instituted the Additional Act; led a parliamentary front in support of abolitionist laws.
d) participated as a diplomat of the Brazilian Empire in the Cisplatine War; she was the first woman to work as a journalist and novelist during the Second Reign; became an important political leader in advocating an end to the slave trade to the Americas.
e) articulated with the English diplomats the recognition of the Independence of Brazil from Portugal; he was an important military leader in the process of Bahia's War of Independence; created the first political association in defense of women's suffrage in Brazil.answers Question 1
Elizabeth I of England reigned during the second half of the 16th century, during the time of the civil wars of religion in Europe. She carried on the legacy of her father, the reformist creator of Anglicanism, Henry VIII – although Henry VIII did not want, when he was alive, to be succeeded by a daughter, but by a son. Margaret Thatcher ruled the United Kingdom from 1975 to 1979. She was one of the greatest representatives of the liberal (or neoliberal, for some) economic policy of the second half of the 20th century. She strongly opposed the rigging that British trade unionism had made of the state public machine in previous decades.Question 2
Joan D'Arc became known for having commanded the French army in the fight against the English during the Hundred Years' War, in the 15th century. She is also regarded by Catholics as a mystical saint and martyr of the Church, having been canonized in 1920 by Benedict XV.Question 3
Cleopatra was queen of Hellenistic Egypt at the time when the Roman Republic began to become quite powerful. Her fame comes from the fact that she managed to seduce and persuade two great leaders of the Roman Republic, Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Roxane was the daughter of a Persian noble named Oxiartes. Alexander the Great took her to wife and with her had his son, Alexander IV.Question 4
Leopoldina of Austria, who was wife of D. Pedro I and mother of D. Pedro II, played a very important role in the consolidation phase of the Brazilian Empire. Anita Garibaldi, named for her relationship with Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian revolutionary who fought in Brazil during the Farroupilha Revolution, was one of the most prominent women involved in military campaigns in Brazil. The musician Chiquinha Gonzaga, in turn, in addition to having distinguished herself as an artist, also had a great role in the political scenario, fighting as a defender of republican ideals and for the abolition of slavery, alongside names such as Joaquim Nabuco, Rebouças and José do Patrocínio. .