History quiz

Exercises on the Protestant Reformation - with feedback

Question 01 - FATEC - 2018 - The Protestant Reformation would never have taken place if the Gutenberg press had not been created beforehand. “Luther would have used Twitter and Facebook in an exhaustive way if the networks had existed,” analyzes writer Benjamin Hasselhorn. “He was extremely desperate to get his convictions out to the faithful,” he commented. Accessed:11.02.2017. Historically, the relationship that the text establishes between Martin Luther and Gutenberg's press is evident, mainly, in the a) edition of philosophical material critical to the Christian faith. b) creation of the first daily evangelical newspaper. c) publication of popular religious novels. d) dissemination of biblical products and services. e) printing of the Bible in German.

Question 02 - FATEC - 2016/2 - In 1517, the Catholic bishop Martin Luther wrote and posted on the door of the cathedral of the city of Wittenberg, located in present-day Germany, a document in which he enumerated ninety-five criticisms of the behavior of the representatives of the Catholic Church. The original poster, which contained the 95 Theses, was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in March 2016. In the 16th century, its publication started the process known as the Protestant Reformation. Among other behaviors, Luther condemned
(A) the mass literacy, promoted by the Jesuits, and the publication of Bibles, actions that aimed to weaken the role of priests and offer religious autonomy to Catholics.
(B) the permission given by the Church for the creation of different religious denominations (neo-Pentecostals), which ended up weakening the central power of the Pope.
(C) the disrespect for celibacy by priests, the collection of tithes, and the commercialization of holy water , sacred relics and indulgences.
(D) the incorporation of pagan practices into Catholic rites, the acceptance of women in the celebration of Masses and the abolition of celibacy for priests.
(E) the tolerance of the Church Catholic with the religious practices of indigenous and enslaved Africans in the newly discovered American lands.

Question 03 - IFS 2015.2 - Subsequent - They were elements for the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century:
a) The Sale of Indulgences authorized by Pope Leo X in 1517 to finance the construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
b) The search for the Catholic virtue expressed by Martin Luther in the 95 theses proclaimed in the cathedral of Wittenberg, England, where he praised the Medieval Church for its defense of the poorest.
c) The reaction of the Medieval Church to the Council of Trent that had been organized by Luther to correct the deviations of Catholicism.
d) Pope Leo X's decision to annul the marriage of the King of England, Henry VIII, to Catherine of Aragon, as she did not produce a male heir to the throne.

Question 04 - IFS 2018.1 - Subsequent - About the Protestant Reformation it is correct to say:
a) It was a movement of rupture of the Catholic Church in 1054, generated by the disagreements that occurred between the leaders of the Church of Constantinople and that of Rome, which resulted in the formation of the Catholic Church Orthodox in 1054.
b) An event that took place from 1545 onwards that contested the dogmas of the Catholic Church and resulted in the ban on the sale of indulgences, a practice used since antiquity to raise funds for the Construction of St. Peter's Cathedral.
c) Movement to break the unity of the Christian Church, which initially emerged in the territory of present-day Germany in Western Europe in the 16th century, marked by the emergence of new Christian religions.
d) It was motivated by the dissatisfaction of Lutheran monks after the changes made by the Counter-Reformation in the main dogmas of the Catholic Church.

Question 05 - FUVEST 2009 - Transfer — “And who knows what awaited the papacy itself if the [Protestant] Reformation had not saved it?” J. Burckhardt, The Culture of the Renaissance in Italy, 1860.
Considering the text and the situation of the Church on the eve of the Reformation, it is correct to say that
a) the Church, as an institution, was immune to that crisis spirituality that marked Christianity.
b) Catholicism passed unscathed by the religious crisis unleashed by Luther's reform.
c) the Catholic reform, or counter-reformation, allowed the papacy to overcome the crisis in which it found itself .
d) Western Christendom, despite the Protestant Reformation, maintained its religious unity.
e) the various Protestant churches managed to reduce the power of the Roman Curia to impotence.

Question 06 - IFS 2014.2 - Subsequent - Initiated by the German monk Martin Luther, religious reforms took place in Europe in the 16th century. Mark the correct option about the two great principles of this movement.
a) Only faith saves; religious practice does not interfere with the salvation of the individual;
b) The overvaluation of work; the strengthening of papal authority;
c) The valorization of the cult of the saints; the Bible as the only truth.
d) The human being would have his salvation by practicing indulgences to the church; only work saves;
e) The Pope has the power to forgive; indulgences would shorten the soul's permanence in purgatory.

Question 07 - IBMEC 2006 - The Religious Reform, which emerged in Germany in the 16th century, was one of the milestones in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. About this movement, it is correct to say that:
a) it began with the monk Martin Luther, who contested the sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church and defended that faith was the fundamental element for the salvation of the individual.
b) it was a movement of the Catholic Church that aimed to fight the Protestantism that was advancing in Europe and culminated in the persecution of the enemies of the church by the Court of the Holy Office.
c) it was a movement started by Calvin in 1517, after publishing 95 theses that attacked the Catholic Church, the power of the Pope, the sale of relics and the cult of saints.
d) it was a religious, economic and social movement; started by John Wycliffe who condemned the accumulation of capital as a way of obtaining the heavenly paradise.
e) it began with the attempt of the Catholic Church to combat the heresies of groups such as the Albigensians and Cathars, who challenged papal power and some dogmas of the Catholic Church.

Question 08 - FUVEST 2016 - Transfer – The so-called Protestant Reformation, which began in central Europe at the beginning of the 16th century, meant
a) the universal recognition of the religious authority of the Roman Church.
b) a mobilization of Roman Catholicism in defense of its doctrine and against the emergence of Byzantine Orthodoxy.
c) a schism within Christianity between Protestants and Catholics.
d) the geopolitical division of Europe between Protestants and Orthodox, to the exclusion of Catholics and Muslims.
e) the division of the Christian papacy, henceforth based in both Rome and Avignon.

Question 09 - FUVEST 2015 - Transfer – The Protestant Reformation that took place in Europe at the beginning of the 16th century
a) little changed the foundations of Christian creed and practice, as it was a basically political and not religious movement.
b) proposed the abolition of mediation between subject and divinity exercised by the Roman Church, so that the faithful could address themselves directly to God.
c) would only have significant adhesion of European societies in the 17th century, when the preaching of John Calvin began.
d) it ended with the Counter-Reformation, when Catholics and Protestants reached an agreement that defined the foundations of a Christian ecumenism, still in force today.
e) defined the vow of poverty and the need for the faithful to detach themselves from any ideals of wealth, against the who had been practicing the Roman Church.

Question 10 - PUC-SP 2018 - The Protestant Reformation, begun in 1517 with Luther, spread across Europe in the following decades, fueling social upheavals and political conflicts. Among the reformers, Calvin proved to be more radical in his criticism of Catholicism because
a) he denied any type of religious authority, as he affirmed the absolute supremacy of the individual and his ability, when reading the Bible, to reach the grace of knowledge as a way for salvation.
b) he criticized the national churches and the leaders of the kings in the cults, understanding that the faithful would reach salvation through good works such as the conversion of sinners through the preaching of the word of God.
c) he affirmed the absolute predestination of God's elect, recognizable by such signs as a simple and austere life, attendance at worship, honest hard work, and care for one's family.
d) indicated that salvation by faith could also be achieved with the use of reason, and that the faithful who lived a holy and celibate life were models to be discussed and taught in the seminaries.

REPORTS 01 - E02 - C03 - A04 - C05 - C06 - A07 - A
08 - C
09 - B
10 - C