History of Asia

Easy-to-understand summary of the 15th Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate

Last updated:2022-07-25

During the Edo period, 15 generals ruled Japan for 263 years.

It may be difficult to remember everything, but I briefly put together 15 generals.

The establishment of the Edo Shogunate and the beginning of martial arts politics

First generation:Ieyasu Tokugawa

Nobunaga Oda, Hideyoshi Toyotomi Sengoku Sanei-Ketsu One of them.

After Toyotomi Hideyoshi's death, Naidaijin Ieyasu became the de facto leader, and Hideyoshi himself said, [ Ieyasu entrusts politics until Hideyori grows up . ] Because there was a will, Council of Five Elders It will be. After the Battle of Sekigahara, he was appointed as Shogun General in 1603 and opened the shogunate, and was the person who built the Edo period, which lasted 264 years until the repatriation of the Taisei Hokan in 1867.

It is a famous story that he excels in martial arts and is a healthy nerd.

2nd generation:Hidetada Tokugawa (Hidetada )

[ Ieyasu decided everything by himself. Hidetada fell short of that, but he decided half by himself. Iemitsu was all left to the senior vassals. ] It is also described as.

In 1590, following Hideyoshi's wife and child hostage decree, he was taken up as a substantive hostage, and after that he took the genpuku and was given the bias of Hideyoshi and named himself Hidetada.

After Sekigahara, Ieyasu was thinking about which of his three sons would be his successor, and his vassal, Tadashi Okubo, said, "In a turbulent world, courage is essential, but Buntoku is also necessary to rule the world. There is only Hidetada, who has a humble personality with wisdom and literary morals. ] It was advised that the next shogun was Hidetada.

Two years after Ieyasu became a shogun, he handed over the shogunate to Hidetada in 1605, and Ieyasu himself dedicated his subsequent life to subdue the Toyotomi clan.

Third generation:Iemitsu Tokugawa

2nd Shogun Hidetada And Azai Nagamasa's daughter, E A child born between and.

The shogunate organization was established with the incumbent general as the supreme authority by establishing a system for middle-aged and young people, magistrates, and Ometsuke. With the revision of the Buke Shohatto, Sankin-kotai And Japan's isolation system It was Iemitsu who made this.

" I am a general by nature ] Is a too famous word.

He loved to hear the stories of the warlords who survived the Warring States period, and placed the daimyo as a troupe. He especially respected Masamune Date and is said to have treated him with exceptionally high treatment as a Tozama Daimyo.

The beginning of civil politics

4th generation:Tokugawa Ietsuna

His father was the third shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu, who succeeded the shogun at the age of only 11.

Therefore, we will continue to operate a stable government with the support of vassals from the Iemitsu era, such as Hoshina Masayuki. A certain amount of consideration was given to Tozama Daimyo, etc., the ban on matsugo-yō was relaxed, the ban on the daimyo witness system and the ban on murder were issued. I was struck.

There are no boys in the Ietsuna, and the death of the Ietsuna will cut off the direct line of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

5th generation:Tsunayoshi Tokugawa

He is the grandson of Hidetada Tokugawa, the second shogun. A great-grandson from the perspective of the first shogun, Ieyasu Tokugawa.

For the Shogunate's press conference audit, we set up an account examiner and weighed the appointment of a talented small hatamoto. He is famous for the decree of mercy on living creatures, and he is also called a dog general because of his folly. This low evaluation is largely due to the drama, and it is said that he was actually a great man.

6th generation:Ienobu Tokugawa

A person who is the grandson of the third shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu.

His spirit was shown, such as the decree of mercy on living creatures and the immediate abolition of the liquor tax, which went in the wrong direction of the Tsunayoshi era, so the popularity and expectations of the common people were high.

He dismissed Yoshiyasu Yanagisawa and promoted civil politics by appointing Manabe Akifusa and Arai Hakuseki, former vassals of the Kofu Tokugawa family. It is said that he invited many scholars such as Muro Kyusou in addition to Arai and made an effort to promote human resources.

7th generation:Tokugawa Ietsugu

Born as the fourth son of the sixth shogun, Tokugawa Ienobu. He became a general at the age of four and died at the age of only eight.

Therefore, I left it to my side servants and carried out politics with the policy of the predecessor as it was.

His birth mother, Gekkoin and Manabe Akifusa, a servant, are constantly rumored to be the famous Ejima Ikushima Incident in the drama Ooku. It was also during this time that

Due to the death of Ietsugu, the system of Tokugawa Iemitsu is cut off.

Three major reforms of the Shogunate

8th generation:Yoshimune Tokugawa

Yoshimune Tokugawa, famous for the unfettered shogun, is a US general . Also called.

Born as the fourth son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the second feudal lord of the Kishu domain of the Tokugawa Gosanke family. The first shogun, Ieyasu Tokugawa, is a great-grandfather.

Kyoho Reforms , working to revive the power of the Shogunate, reforming the Shogunate reforms by raising taxes and frugality, public policies such as Nitta development, enacting the Kujikata Osadamegaki, and setting up a guide box to incorporate the opinions of citizens. strong> to hold.

Aside from the effects of his policies, he is considered to be one of the great princes of the Edo period.

9th generation:Ieshige Tokugawa

Born as the eldest son of Tokugawa Yoshimune.

It is said that he had a disability by nature, and his father, Yoshimune and his vassals seemed to be troubled every day due to the unclear language. It was also during this period that Tanuma Okitsugu was picked up.

There seems to be a theory that he was actually a woman.

Teenager:Ieharu Tokugawa

His father was the 9th Shogun Tokugawa Ieshige, who was intelligent from an early age and received the expectations of his grandfather Yoshimune. Until Yoshimune tried it, he even taught and taught himself.

However, although he is often devoted to his hobbies and treated as foolish, there seems to be a theory that he was not incompetent and was just unmotivated. Side servant Tanuma Okitsugu I feel like I was throwing almost all of them.

11th generation:Tokugawa Ienari

The eldest son of Tokugawa Harusada, the second head of the Gosankyo Hitotsubashi family.

Matsudaira Sadanobu , dismissing Tanuma, who was the authority of his predecessor Is appointed to the old age.

The Kansei Reforms will be carried out with that belief at the forefront. Ienari proactively tried to rebuild the shogunate's finances and sowed it, but because it was too strict, Ienari dismissed Sadanobu and stopped the reform.

The feature is that the shogun's reign is the longest, 50 years. He is also famous for having more than 50 children due to his energetic unequaledness and being adopted by his vassals and daimyo because he could not grow up.

12th generation:Ieyoshi Tokugawa

Even if I hear the opinion from my vassals, [ that's right (do it) ], So [ Sosei-sama ] It seems that it was called. He seems to have been poor as a general.

He seems to have left all of his politics to Tadakuni Mizuno, an old man, Tenpo Reforms The we.

He is also famous for cracking down on pioneering scholars such as Takano Choei and Watanabe Kazan. (Bansha no Goku)

The turbulent period at the end of the Edo period

13s:Tokugawa Iesada

Despite the turmoil at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, he was so weak that the problem of succession emerged immediately after his inauguration, and he was unable to demonstrate his leadership as a general.

It may be easier to say that he is the wife of Tensho-in Atsushi.

14s:Iemochi Tokugawa

He has a strong reputation from the shogunate, including Katsu Kaishu, and it was said that the Tokugawa shogunate would be destroyed after the death of Iemochi.

He loves sweets and is said to have suffered from his cavities and beriberi due to these overeating.

In this era, Sakuradamon Incident and Ansei Purge And so on.

15s:Yoshinobu Tokugawa

Inaugurated as a shogun from the Hitotsubashi family of Gosankyo.

He is said to excel in Bunbu, and in the Kinmon Incident, he commanded the Gosho defensive army and attacked the army of the Choshu clan that occupied the Takashi residence.

Edo Castle is listed in history textbooks as a general who put an end to the Edo Shogunate with the bloodless opening of the castle and the repatriation of the Taisei Hokan in 1867.

In the 34th year of the Meiji era, he became a member of the House of Lords and became involved in politics.

He died in 1918 at the age of 77, and was the longest-lived shogun of all time.

It may be difficult to remember all 15 people, but the most important generals in this era are Ieyasu 1st, Hidetada 2nd, Iemitsu 3rd, Tsunayoshi 5th, Yoshimune 8th, 15 Yoshinobu Shiro Is always mentioned in textbooks, so it's a good idea to remember what policy this general had.