Philip IV the Beautiful (photo:public domain)
Philip IV the Beautiful (1268-1314) - French king of the Capetian dynasty. In the early days of his reign, Philip the Beautiful was more interested in noble entertainment, such as hunting. Only with time did he become involved in governing. He entered into a dispute with the King of England, Edward I, over Aquitaine and Flanders, which he took over by force.
During his reign, Paris grew in importance. The ruler often waged wars, which required a lot of money. This was one of the reasons he cracked down on the Templars. He accused a very rich order of heresy, burned several dozen brothers at the stake with the great master Jacob de Molay, and then emptied the treasury of the congregation. He also confiscated the property of wealthy bankers and Jews.
He came into conflict with the papacy during the pontificate of Boniface VIII. After his death, successive church heads sought Philip's protection. It resulted in their headquarters being moved to Avignon, thus making the popes dependent on the French king.
He died in 1314, possibly of a brain hemorrhage.