History quiz

Exercises on the origin of capitalism

question 1

(UFRS) In his classic work, published in 1776, “The Wealth of Nations ”, the Scotsman Adam Smith described the workings of a way of producing pins:

“one pulls the wire, the other straightens it, a third cuts it, a fourth sharpens it, a fifth grinds it at the other end for the head placement; to manufacture the head, two or three distinct operations are necessary; the placement of the head is very interesting, and so is the final polishing of the pins; even putting it on paper constitutes, in itself, an activity..."

Smith said that 10 men, dividing the work, produced at the end of a day 48 thousand pins. If the production were artisanal, one man would produce only 20 pins a day and the 10 men together only 200 pins.

Based on the statements above, mark the alternative that correctly answers the following questions.

What historical form of work is Adam Smith describing? What are the main economic consequences of this new form of production, defended by Smith as a real advance for society?

  1. The manufacturing division of labor - the increase in production and freedom of commerce.
  2. Craft production – industrialization and freedom of commerce.
  3. The manufacturing division of labor – the increase in production and the monopoly of trade.
  4. Craft production – increased production and freedom of commerce.
  5. Factory cooperation – industrialization and the monopoly of trade.
question 2

(UERJ) Get rid of this stupid, sleepy and lazy indifference [...]. What path in life can a man be on who is not stimulated by the sight of Watt's steam engine?

YOUNG, Arthur. Travel in England and Wales . Apud Hobsbawm, Eric J. The age of revolutions . Rio de Janeiro:Peace and Earth, 1981.

Despite the optimism of the author of the above text, the process of the Industrial Revolution, which began around the 1760s in England, promoted a series of transformations in English society , such as:

  1. change in the meaning of the word work, starting to express pain and social discredit.
  2. expansion of the division of labor, seeking greater productivity and control over workers.
  3. decline in agricultural activities, causing leasing of rural properties and land devaluation.
  4. increased technological requirements, leading to industrial capitalization and the abandonment of artisanal techniques.
question 3

The origin of capitalism dates back to a long process of social transformations that began at the end of the Middle Ages, mainly with maritime commercial expansion and urban renaissance, which became hegemonic in Western Europe only in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. On the characteristics of capitalist development in this period, indicate which of the alternatives on the subject, exposed below, is incorrect .

  1. In the final centuries of the Middle Ages there was a transformation in the self-sufficient character of feudal estates, in which land began to be leased and labor began to be remunerated with a salary.
  2. The medieval bourgeoisie introduced a new configuration to the European economy, in which the search for profit and the circulation of goods to be traded in different regions gained greater space.
  3. Experienced commercial practice has imprinted a new economic logic in which the merchant replaced the use value of goods with their exchange value.
  4. In addition to enabling an impressive accumulation of wealth, mercantile capitalism created an economy with a monopolistic aspect, in which economic powers refused to make agreements, implemented tariffs and promoted wars in order to maintain their commercial domains.
  5. >
  6. The experience of the Industrial Revolution has set a new pace of technological progress and integration of the economy in which we perceive the features closest to the economy experienced in the contemporary world.
question 4

In the process of disintegration of the social relations of feudal production, the organization of manufactures began to occupy a central place, expanding with the division of labor the productivity of the agents involved in the manufacture of goods. The two main classes that emerged from this disintegration were:

  1. aristocracy and slaves
  2. aristocracy and serfs
  3. bourgeoisie and wage workers.
  4. bourgeoisie and serfs.
  5. aristocracy and wage workers.
answers Question 1

LetterA . This form of manufacturing division of labor preceded the industrial cooperation necessary for industrialization. One of the consequences demonstrated by the passage of Smith's book itself is the increase in production, the other is the freedom of commerce necessary for the flow of this production.

question 2

Letter B . The main alteration of the Industrial Revolution was the division of labor and the increase in productivity, which began to influence several other areas of social life.

question 3

Letter D . Mercantile capitalism initially created a commercial form more open to competition, basing national policies on these principles.

question 4

Letter C . The main classes that emerged were the bourgeoisie and wage workers, the former were private owners of the means of production and the latter sold their strength and work capacity in exchange for a wage.