C. L.R. James. The Black Jacobins:Toussaint L'Ouverture and the Saint-Domingue Revolution. São Paulo:Bomtempo, 2000, p.15
About the independence of Haiti and its consequences in other regions of America, mark the correct alternative.a) The movement was carried out under the aegis of liberal and nationalist ideals, defended , in turn, by the French Enlightenment. Its success was decisive for the realization of important structural transformations in the societies of the new Latin American nations. The island. Its success encouraged the emergence of the Zapatista movement in 1994. c) Result of social and political dissatisfactions of the slave population, it demonstrated popular strength in the context of the emergence of national states in Latin America. Its success influenced Simon Bolívar and San Martín to start the struggles for independence in South America.d) Despite its success, the movement resulted in the rise of corrupt rulers who, far from resolving social inequalities, contributed to the consolidation of oligarchic groups in the power. These aspects determined the emergence of caudillismo in the context of independent Latin America.e) It was the only successful slave revolt in American history and the difficulties they had to overcome highlights the magnitude of the interests involved. In Brazil, its influence could be felt in the articulation that would lead to the Malês Revolt, in 1835.
Question 02 - IBFC - 2013 - SEAP-DF - The Antillean island of Saint Domingue (formerly Hispaniola) began an emancipatory process against the colonial regime in 1791, with wide participation of the enslaved population, which caused fear in the various colonies of the American continent. This uprising is also known as the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804). One of its leaders, Toussaint L'Ouverture, was the articulator of the constitutional text of 1801. Among the revolutionary positions and actions carried out by the population, we can highlight:I. Emancipation was based predominantly on the participation of the population of African descent;II. Alliance with Napoleonic troops, sent in the context of the French Revolution of 1789;III. Dwarf participation of colonial elites in the revolutionary process; IV. Immediate abolition of slavery, soon after the seizure of power. Indicate the only sentences, which are not in accordance with the Haitian revolutionary positions and actions of the described period. a) Only II. b) I and IV, only.c) Only III.d) I and II, only.
Question 03 - UFPR 2017 - Consider the following extract from the Haitian Declaration of Independence:January 1, 1804The General in Chief to the People of Haiti, Citizens – compatriots –, I have gathered, on this solemn day, the courageous commanders who, on the eve of receiving the last breath of freedom dying, they shed their blood to preserve her. These generals, who led your struggles against tyranny, are not over yet. The French reputation still obscures our plains:all things evoke the memory of the cruelties of that barbarous people. Our laws, our customs, our cities, everything has characteristics of the French. Hear what I'm saying! The French still have one foot on our island! And you believe yourself to be free and independent from that republic, which fought all nations, it is true, but never conquered those who would be free! (Transcript from the version published in David Armitage, Declaration of Independence:a global history. São Paulo:Companhia das Letras, 2011) Based on this fragment and on the knowledge on the subject, consider the following statements about the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) and its significance for American independence:1. Before being called Haiti, the island was called Santo Domingo and was under Spanish rule, being invaded by the French at the behest of Napoleon.2. Haiti was the first republic in the Americas to free itself from European domination and abolish slavery.3. The particularity of the Haitian revolution is that it was led by slaves, freedmen and mulattos and inspired by the principles that the French themselves would have raised during their revolution.4. The Haitian revolution had the support of slaves and freedmen from the Spanish colony of Cuba. Mark the correct alternative.a) Only statements 1 and 4 are true.b) Only statements 2 and 3 are true. c) Only statements 1, 2 and 3 are true.d) Only statements 2, 3 and 4 are true.e) Statements 1, 2, 3 and 4 are true.
Question 04 - IBFC - 2013 - SEAP-DF - The Antillean island of Saint Domingue (formerly Hispaniola) began an emancipatory process against the colonial regime in 1791, with wide participation of the enslaved population, which caused fear in the various colonies of the American continent. This uprising is also known as the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804). One of its leaders, Toussaint L'Ouverture, was the articulator of the constitutional text of 1801. Among the revolutionary positions and actions carried out by the population, we can highlight:I. Emancipation was based predominantly on the participation of the population of African descent;II. Alliance with Napoleonic troops, sent in the context of the French Revolution of 1789;III. Dwarf participation of colonial elites in the revolutionary process; IV. Immediate abolition of slavery, shortly after taking power. Indicate the only sentences, which do not agree with the Haitian revolutionary positions and actions of the period described. a) Only II. b) I and IV, only.c) Only III.d) I and II, only.
Question 05 - VUNESP - 2014 - PM-SP - “A rumor has been running around the city for days that has filled some with dread, and others with indignation, in whose last issue I place myself”, vented the doctor Joaquim Cândido Soares de Meirelles (1797-1868), facing the climate of panic established in Rio de Janeiro in 1831. Growing rumors guaranteed that a conspiracy plot was under way in the capital of the Empire, inspired by the Haitian Revolution (1791-1825).(Iuri Lapa, O Haiti é aqui?. Revista de História da História National Library, 03.03.2010) The atmosphere created at the time had its origin (A) in the abolitionist propaganda promoted by the Haitian revolutionaries and by the population of the North of the USA, more inclined to free work, small property and polyculture, and defender of the liberation of the slaves across the American continent. (B) in the defense of the revolution carried out by the political heirs of the French Revolution, who argued that the French government should export revolutionary radicalism to the other side of the Atlantic, threatening the institutional existence of the Empire in Brazil. (C) in the political approximation between the leaders republicans of independence from some Latin American countries, such as Bolivar (Venezuela), San Martin (Argentina) and Toussaint-Louverture (Haiti), who wanted to transform Brazil into a Republic.(D) in the ghost that haunted you for decades slaveholders in Brazil, fearful that the Haitian movement would be repeated here, in which the abolition of slavery and the proclamation of independence converged, including the massacre of whites. (E) in the anti-communist sentiment that existed in Brazil since the beginning of the 19th century, when the slave elite watched in terror the seizure of power in Haiti by socialist revolutionaries, inspired by the ideas of Saint-Simon's utopian socialism.
Question 06 - FATEC - 2016/2 - Read the text. For Spanish America, Haiti was an example and a warning, watched with growing horror by both rulers and ruled. Creoles could now see what the result would be of the loss of unity in the metropolis, the loss of calm by the authorities, and the loss of control by the colonial ruling class. With the adoption of these social and racial policies, Haiti was stigmatized as an enemy of all colonial and slave regimes in the Americas, which took immediate steps to protect themselves. BETHELL, Leslie (eds.). History of Latin America. São Paulo:Edusp, 2004. p.69. Adapted. The text refers(A) to the economic crisis, caused by the sudden drop in the price of sugar in the international market, which led thousands of Haitians to seek refuge in the United States.(B) to the earthquake that hit Haiti in the first decade of the 2000s, leaving 200,000 dead, 250,000 injured and more than 1.5 million people homeless.(C) the Haitian Revolution, a movement led by slaves and ex-slaves against the French army, which culminated in Haiti's independence. (D) the significant increase in Haitian immigrants in the city of São Paulo and the consequent increase in cases of discrimination and racism verified from 1990 onwards. (E) the presence of United Nations (UN) troops, who sought to guarantee the political stability in Haiti after the deposition of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
Question 07 - UNCISAL 2016 - There are many factors that make the Haitian Revolution a unique event; the former French colony was one of the first to achieve independence from the metropolis, even using the ideas of liberation from France itself, its colonizer, in addition, the Revolution was carried out by slaves, when in most In part of the European colonies in Latin America, the independence process was led by members of a Creole elite and, although there was popular participation, this was very small. SOARES, Ana Loryn; SILVA, Elton Batista da. The Haitian Revolution:A Case Study (1791-1804). Amerindia, v.1, 2006, p.4. Available in:
The struggle for Haiti's political independence became unique, as freedom, for them, meant ending slavery. b) put an end to discrimination. c) to promote racial equality. d) fight for the division of lands. e) seek free commercialization.
Question 08 - UFSM 1999 - Among the independence movements in America, it is worth highlighting the independence of Haiti, whose peculiarity(ies) is(are) the following(s):I. The independence of the colony, initially called São Domingos, took place of the French Revolution and began when the slaves, led by Toussaint, burned the cane fields and drove the French and Spanish armies out of the region. II. In 1806, Dessalines proclaimed the independence of the colony that came to be called Haiti, the first independent black nation in the world, whose political regime was communism. III. Haiti's independence was achieved by the criollos, an agrarian elite who owned land and slaves, with the participation of the mass of slaves. Is(are) correct a) only I. b) only II. c) only III. d) only I and II. e) only II and III.
INTRODUCTION 01 - E02 - A03 - B04 - A05 - D06 - C07 - A08 - A