History of Africa

From 1785 to 1580 BC. AD:Second Intermediate Period


During the second interim period , it is the first time in their history that the Egyptians are subjected to foreign invaders… The pharaohs not only have short reigns, but sometimes several rule at the same time. The kingdom of Egypt is fragmented and the decline initiated at the end of the Middle Kingdom , endures.

CIRCA 1785 B.C. AD

Invasion of the Hyksos:

A very large number of nomads from the Middle East took advantage of the vast population movement initiated during the Middle Kingdom to infiltrate through northeast Egypt. Coming from Syria-Palestine, they are called the Hyksos which means “princes of foreign countries”. They gradually take control of the region of the northern delta and introduce chars drawn by horses, bows sickle-shaped and arrows which allow them to easily defeat soldiers on foot.

ABOUT 1,770 B.C. AD

The Hebrews immigrate to Egypt .

CIRCA 1730 TO 1580 BC. AD

The Hyksos seize power:

They founded the city of Avaris which becomes their capital and compel the central government to withdraw to Thebes. They kept their customs but gradually copied the customs, ideas, religion and model of the Egyptian government. Their leader Salitis designates himself pharaohs, proclaims himself “son of Re” and founds his own dynasty. The authority of the Hyksos does not seem to have been very strong in the southern part of the country and Egyptian pharaohs continue to reign in Memphis or Thebes. Thus, the Hyksos pharaohs do not rule over a unified kingdom, but rather over small principalities that accept their authority. The life of the Egyptians does not change and continues to be punctuated by the work of the fields, the floods of the Nile and the construction sites. The Hyksos profit from the wealth of Egypt while the Egyptians catch up on their “technical” backwardness:They learn to make daggers and bows, improve bronze work and learn to drive horse-drawn chariots. Thanks to this, they will win many battles…

ABOUT 1,680 B.C. AD

Rebellion of the Egyptians:

After a hundred years of inaction, the princes of Thebes rebel and contest the power of the Hyksôs . Rahotep forms a well-trained army and decides to undertake a war of liberation and reconquer the double country, i.e. Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

AROUND 1,600 TO 1,580 BC. AD

Reunification of Egypt:

After more than thirty years of conflict, Ahmosis I successfully led a series of military campaigns. It definitely repels the Hyksôs out of the country, submits Nubia to the south and once again restores the unity of the country. The army will become a priority for the pharaohs of the New Kingdom.

Dynasties during the 2nd Intermediate Period

XIII and XIV Dynasties: (1785 to c.1730 BC) Disintegration of power.

XVth and XVIth Dynasties (Hyksos): (1730 to 1580 BC)

XVIIth dynasty: (1680 to 1580 BC)