History of Asia

Toyotomi Hideyoshi's career life! !! How did you become a heavenly man? ??

Toyotomi Hideyoshi is the person who has made such a big success in Japanese history. There is no other place. Even a famous person in history Nobunaga Oda, Ieyasu Tokugawa Next, the name of Toyotomi Hideyoshi will come up.

Today, I would like to write a career path in the life of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the road to the world

Hideyoshi, despite being a farmer, will continue to stand out by serving Nobunaga Oda.

The method of advancement is also a bit different from other vassals, and normally he will advance with martial arts in battle etc. , I noticed the contribution mainly in terms of strategy.

Even after being appointed as the castellan, he has a [ humanity ] So, Takenaka Hanbei and Hachisuka Masakatsu We will make good use of excellent human resources such as, and will be promoted to the commander of the corps of the capture of the Chugoku region. In this era, the style of moving people to advance themselves is rare, and [ brave ], Not a military commander who is good at career advancement, but [human desire] and [wisdom] It was a new type of human resources that I used.

Fujiyoshiro, born as a child of a farmer, becomes a samurai

Hideyoshi 1537 Born in Owari Province.

He is said to have been born to a farmer's house in Nakamura, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture.

His father's name is Kinoshita Yaemon So, he seemed to be a samurai, but he seemed to be light and low in status. His mother is [ inside ] Will be the later Omandokoro.

His real father died, inside Is Chikuami However, it is said that he had a bad relationship with his father-in-law and left home when he was in genpuku to become a samurai.

Hideyoshi's birth is not very definitive, and there are many legends and myths, so it is not very reliable, but is it generally known like this?

Hideyoshi first served the Imagawa clan, not the Oda clan. Is the person. Even though it is called the Imagawa clan, Matsushita Nozuna is a vassal of the Imagawa clan's vassal, and from the perspective of the owner, he is also a vassal, so he would not have met Yoshimoto Imagawa directly.

Around this time, Hideyoshi was Kinoshita Fujiyoshiro (hereinafter Fujiyoshiro) . He decorated his first career as a samurai under Matsushita Nozuna and did a good job as it was. He retired soon, but after Hideyoshi became a heavenly man, Matsushita Nozuna was given 3000 stones in Tanba, Kawachi, and Ise, and finally 16000 stones and Totomi Kuno Castle. ..

Looking at the place where I thank Matsushita for letting me experience his first career as a samurai, Hideyoshi Toyotomi seems to be a very in-law person.

Go to the Oda clan and get married ...

1554 Nobunaga Oda I will serve as a small person, but according to historical materials, introduction of Nobunaga's concubine, introduction of Oda clan's vassals There are various theories such as. Nobunaga Oda at that time was just a weak daimyo who had just taken control of Owari.

Fujiyoshiro is mainly a Fushin Bugyo * of Kiyosu Castle. He demonstrated his talent in such work and made an outstanding appearance in the Oda family. The episode that warmed the sandals worn by Nobunaga is famous, but it is said that this was the first episode of Ehon Taikoki written in the Edo period.

* Fushin Bugyo is said to have repaired the Imperial Palace, walls, embankments, etc., and cleaned the garden of the castle during the Muromachi period.

Nobunaga highly appreciates Fujiyoshiro, who is kind of smart, and if there is anything, " monkey " I heard that he was telling me something to do.

Successful career as a samurai Ashigaru Kumigashira One day, spring will come to Fujiyoshiro.

Nagakatsu Asano who was the same Ashigaru Kumigashira at that time I am going to marry my daughter, One.

Later, Mr. Asano played an active role as the head of the Go-Bugyō, the center of the Toyotomi administration.

The marriage of these two people was a rare love marriage at that time, and it seems that her mother opposed it because of Fujiyoshiro's low status, but she seems to have decided to marry her by overcoming her opposition. is.

The success of Tokichiro Kinoshita in the attack on Mino

1556 , Saito Dosan of Mino Province, Nobunaga's father-in-law However, due to the discord between the parents and children, he is defeated by his firstborn, Yoshitatsu. At this time, Dosan gave his son-in-law, Nobunaga, " Mino handed over . I handed over the will.

As the will, Nobunaga decides to attack Mino, but 1560 Yoshimoto Imagawa invades Owari for Joraku. It was a pinch of the Oda clan's desperation due to the force difference of the Imagawa clan 25,000 against the Oda clan 2000, but it succeeded in defeating Yoshimoto by the surprise attack operation of Yoshimoto's main team by Nobunaga.

The battle between Okehazama is Three Surprise Attacks in Japan as a strange battle of this era. Mr. Hojo and Mr. Uesugi Battle of Kawagoe Castle And Mori Motonari and Sue Harukata Battle of Miyajima there is.

With the victory of the Battle of Okehazama, the Oda clan will start attacking Mino in earnest.

1564 Saito's vassal, Takenaka Shigeharu and Ando Morinari Rebelled and hijacked Inabayama Castle. After occupying the castle for about half a year, Hanbei and others will hand it over to the owner, Tatsuoki Saito. During the occupation, Nobunaga Oda invited him to surrender, but Hanbei refused.

* There are various theories, and it is said that Inabayama Castle was abandoned due to the onslaught of Tatsuoki's vassals.

Due to the occupation of Inabayama Castle, the weakening of the Saito family surfaced and the vassals were separated. Seeing this, Nobunaga decided to start with the capture of Nishi-Mino and the capture of Naka-Mino.

Kinoshita Tokichiro in the process of this Mino campaign Will make great achievements.

At this time, Fujiyoshiro will be entrusted with attacking Unuma Castle on the front line of Mino. Although there was a small skirmish in the Unuma Castle capture battle, we succeeded in persuading the castle owner, Jirozaemon Osawa, and were able to open the castle.

Nagahide Niwa for the strategy of Mino's national, Kajita Shu However, in the Inuyama Castle / Karasumine Siege Battle, Mori Yoshinari , In the Sarubami Castle siege, Hidetaka Kawajiri Was active and was able to capture Naka Mino. As a result, Mr. Saito lost contact with Tomino, and the alliance with Mr. Takeda became meaningless, and Mr. Saito's power was limited to Nishimino.

Sunomata's One Night Castle

Kinoshita Tokichiro Is said to have triggered his career advancement [ Sunomata Castle ] Was located in the current state of the west bank of the Nagara River. Originally, the Saito family was state fortress However, since it was an important base for invading Mino from Owari, there were frequent conflicts.

[ Shincho Kouki ], It is written that in 1561, Minose's state-mata fortress was repaired and he was in the field.

According to a story we are familiar with, Nobumori Sakuma first challenges Sunomata Tsukijo at the command of Nobunaga, but fails. After that, Katsuie Shibata also failed, and Tokichiro Kinoshita completed it in one week. ] It starts with the suggestion.

While repelling the Minos, Fujiyoshiro prepared for the construction of the fort, and when the battle was interrupted due to rain around June 1562, he poured wood from the upstream and assembled it, and it went to the land of Sumata overnight. It is an anecdote that the castle was completed.

This anecdote is 1959 It is based on the Maeno family's ancient documents discovered in, and there is no description of Hachisuka Masakatsu or Ichiya Castle, who was involved in the construction of Sunomata Castle in cooperation with Fujiyoshiro.

Therefore, it is believed that the anecdote of Ichiyajo was created during the Edo period, and that Fujiyoshiro did not actually build Ichiyajo.

However, there is no doubt that Sunomata is an important base for capturing Mino.

Nobunaga, who seized the fort of Sunomata in the battle with the Saito family, tries to repair and maintain it, but Sunomata Castle, which is completely visible from Inabayama Castle, even if he tries to send materials for repair, the Saito family's Isn't the repair left untouched by the attack?

It may be the fact that both Sakuma and Shibata were dispatched to the repair, but failed, and Fujiyoshiro offered to do it in a week. In reality, he did not build the castle, but repair and maintain the castle . Hachisuka Koroku / Maeno Nagayasu I think that it was prepared for battle in a short period of time so that it would not be discovered by the enemy together with.

Nobunaga, who gained a foothold in the capture of Mino through the renovation and maintenance of Sunomata, captured Inabayama Castle the following year and made this castle [ Gifu . ] And made it a base. Also, in the same year, Fujiyoshiro will have a life-changing encounter.

Encounter with the genius warrior Takenaka Hanbei

The first of the two warriors who supported Hideyoshi's angry career was Takenaka Hanbei . is.

A genius has been shining his talent since he was little.

At the age of 11, he used a brilliant strategy to withdraw the thief who attacked him when his father was absent. In addition, at the age of 16, he repelled Nobunaga, who had invaded Mino, with a team of ten-faced burial.

And above all, what made the world aware was the aforementioned Inabayama Castle hijacking case.

He hijacked the castle with just 16 people. Six months later, when he surrendered the castle to Ryuko, he left the Saito family and lived as a ronin.

There was no way to bury such Hanbei as it was, and thanks to Hideyoshi's Sanko, Takenaka Hanbei became a vassal of Nobunaga Oda and became the power of Tokichiro Kinoshita. After that, Hanbei will mainly support Hideyoshi's success in life.

Kanegasaki's exit

Nobunaga, who moved to Gifu Castle, has been Tenkafubu since this time. We aim to be Joraku with the catchphrase. From around this time, he began to participate in the Joraku battle with Mr. Rokkaku Omi, and there are many records in the actual battle.

1568 Nobunaga, who devoted himself to Yoshiaki Ashikaga, made a request to Mr. Asakura in Echizen, but he was the head of the family, Yoshikage Asakura . Rejects this. Echizen Province was trying to give in to Mr. Asakura because it was geographically divided into Mino and Kyoto, but Nobunaga decided in 1570 that he was rebellious because of Joraku's refusal. Exercise.

This is Battle of Kanegasaki However, the famous battle in which Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Ieyasu's three Sengoku eras were defeated But it is known.

The Oda-Tokugawa Allied Forces dropped Kanegasaki Castle due to the overwhelming force difference, but incredible news arrives here. Married to Nobunaga's younger sister, Oichi, Nagamasa Asai, who had an alliance, betrayed Nobunaga and marched to aim behind the Oda and Tokugawa troops.

Nobunaga decides to withdraw in a pinch of desperation.

At this time, Dear to withdraw the main army Will be served by Tokichiro Kinoshita.

I Hideyoshi bought the palace However, Nobunaga recently ordered Katsumasa Ikeda, Mitsuhide Akechi, and Tokichiro Kinoshita . It has been with. Moreover, it seems that the main force was Katsumasa Ikeda, and Hideyoshi and Mitsuhide were added to it.

When he returns to the country where he is brilliantly pulled up while meeting the pinch of Asai and Asakura, he will take it back and practice the attack on Asai and Asakura. Three months later, he marched on Asai territory [ Battle of Anegawa ] To defeat the Asai-Asakura Allied Forces.

Three years later, 1573 Battle of Odani Castle Fujiyoshiro will make a big struggle.

Nagamasa Asai, who was a siege in Odani Castle, was surrounded by Toragozeyama in front of him. According to historical sources, in the final phase of the attack on Odani Castle, Hideyoshi left the main team and attacked the Kyogoku Maru, succeeded in dividing Azai Nagamasa and Hisamasa's parent and child, and Hisamasa was cornered by himself.

After that, Nagamasa's firstborn Manpukumaru, his three daughters, and Oichi were handed over to the Oda army, and Manpukumaru was executed by Hideyoshi at the behest of Nobunaga.

Hideyoshi was given the former territory of Asai, Kitaomi Sangun, due to a series of attacks on Asai and Asakura.

Odani Castle was abolished, and the land of [Imahama] facing Lake Biwa was renamed to [Nagahama] [ Nagahama Castle . ] Was built and the castle was owned. Around this time, Toyotomi Kinoshita received a letter from the Oda clan's influential vassals, Nagahide Niwa and Katsuie Shibata, [ Hideyoshi Hashiba . ] Has been renamed.

In addition, I did not write the common name of Fujiyoshiro in writing [ Mamoru Chikuzen ] Will also be used.

After that, the Oda clan also destroyed Mr. Asakura and took possession of Owari, Mino, and Omi, and Hideyoshi Hashiba was commander of the Chinese offensive from Nobunaga. I will be appointed to, but I will continue to the next title ...

To the corps commander of the west champion, Mori clan

1577 Hideyoshi is Mori's capture from Nobunaga Is ordered.

Hideyoshi immediately went to Harima and achieved good results, Akamatsu, Bessho, Kodera . Followed by Kuroda Kanbei Himeji Castle will be taken over from Japan and used as a base for attacking China.

But 1578 Bessho Nagaharu broke away from Mori, and Hideyoshi surrounded Miki Castle, the base of Mr. Bessho. Since then, it has been famous as a military siege for two years [ Siege of Miki 】to hold.

Trouble will occur again during the capture of Miki Castle. Harima's Itami Castle Araki Murashige rebels Woke up. If Itami Castle falls, Hideyoshi will be separated from his home country, and he will be in a difficult situation.

There, Kuroda Kanbei goes to persuade Murashige, but he is imprisoned by Arioka Castle for over a year.

It's a troublesome expedition to China, but 1579 The light shines on.

Bizen Mimasaka's Ukita Naoie is a vassal However, in October, Arioka Castle fell and succeeded in rescuing Kyubei.

With that momentum, Miki Castle also fell in 1580.

1581 To siege Tottori Castle after preparing for a military siege in advance, Tottori's starvation To run. And 1582 Hideyoshi is Mori's Bichu Takamatsu Castle We attacked with water. The lord of the castle was Muneharu Shimizu, a famous general, and even Mourikata could not be dropped here, and the stalemate continued.

Hideyoshi directly requests Nobunaga Oda to join the battlefield in an attempt to defeat the battlefield.

At the request of Hideyoshi, Nobunaga immediately made preparations and went to the Chugoku region.

However, in the early morning of June 2, 1582, an incident occurred at Honnoji Temple, where he was stationed.

Yes ... Honnoji Incident is.

Upon receiving the news of Nobunaga's death, Hideyoshi hid Nobunaga's death and made peace with Mr. Mori and returned to Kyoto. Actually, it is said that Mouri also knew Nobunaga's death, but I wrote a different article about that, so please refer to it.

And the famous [ Chugoku Otsuka ] Will start.

From the Battle of Yamazaki to Nobunaga's successor

I ran 200km from Bichu Takamatsu Castle to Yamazaki in Kyoto in 10 days [ Chugoku Otsuka ] Is said to have left Himeji Castle on June 9th, according to various historical sources.

At Himeji Castle, give all his troops and money to his vassals and soldiers and challenge the battle with Akechi Mitsuhide.

June 13 , Clash with the uncontrolled Akechi army in Yamazaki, Kyoto, and win.

This Battle of Yamazaki According to Taikoki, there was a difference of 15,000 in the Akechi army compared to 40,000 in the Hideyoshi army.

Hideyoshi, who defeated Akechi Mitsuhide, became a member of the Oda clan and became a successor to the Oda clan. At this conference, selecting a successor to the Oda clan And territorial allocation I think that it is a good result to overtake Shibata Katsuie if you look only at Kokudaka, but it was not always Hideyoshi's victory because Nagahama, a key point of Omi, was parted and the city married Katsuie.

Hideyoshi after the Kiyosu conference was Himeji Castle However, in case of emergency because it is far from Kyoto and Azuchi, Yamazaki Castle was built in the place where the battle of Yamazaki was set. Did. Hideyoshi's premonition was right, and soon the conflict with the Shibata Katsuie would intensify.

The conflict between the two became fierce when Nobunaga's funeral was held.

This funeral was a large-scale one that took place over seven days, but it was not the mourner's three lawyers, but Hidekatsu, the fourth son of Nobunaga and adopted by Hideyoshi, and there was no Oda Nobukatsu or Nobutaka, Shibata. There was no participation of Katsuie.

Hideyoshi took charge of this funeral, and he took the lead in the Oda clan and appealed to the world that he was the successor to Nobunaga. Of course, Shibata Katsuie is not interesting.

In 1583, the two clash Battle of Shizugatake Will develop into.

Initially, Katsuie was dominant, but the Shibata army suffered a big defeat due to the maneuver warfare by Hideyoshi and the withdrawal of Toshiie Maeda, who was the power of Katsuie. Katsuie, who withdrew to Kitanosho Castle in Echizen, committed suicide with his newly-married city.

After that, Nobutaka Oda, the owner of Gifu Castle, who was a Shibata sect, is forced to commit suicide.

Conflict with Ieyasu Tokugawa

Nobukatsu Oda Hideyoshi, who succeeded in taking control of the Oda clan, was 1583 . I started building Osaka Castle on the site of Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple. This work mobilized 60,000 people and spent 15 years.

1584 In, the relationship with Nobukatsu Oda deteriorated, and Ieyasu decided to team up with Nobukatsu to defeat Hideyoshi. This conflict is set in the northern part of Owari [ Battle of Komaki and Nagakute ] And will continue to develop.

March 1584 The battle began when Gifu Castle, Tsuneoki Ikeda and Mori Yoshinari turned over to Hideyoshi and occupied Inuyama Castle.

Hideyoshi Army 100,000 VS Oda-Tokugawa Union 30,000

Hideyoshi's army has an advantage in terms of military strength, but the Tokugawa army seems to be one better in leadership.

Hideyoshi siege the castle against the Oda-Tokugawa Allied Forces who are standing in Komakiyama Castle, but cannot make a perfect siege like the Mouri attack, and Hideyoshi, who is numb in the war situation, launches an assault operation.

This operation was once said to have been carried out by Ikeda Tsuneoki and Mori Yoshinari overcoming Hideyoshi, but in reality it is known that Hideyoshi planned and carried out. This operation was pinched by the Tokugawa army, losing both Ikeda and Mori and 2500 soldiers, resulting in a big defeat for Hideyoshi.

With this great defeat, he changed his policy and attacked the castle in the southern part of Owari and Ise, the home of Nobuo, instead of the Tokugawa opponent, and attacked Nobuo to make a peace treaty. Due to the peace between Nobuo and Hideyoshi, Ieyasu will lose the cause of fighting Hideyoshi and will draw an army to Mikawa.

The road to unification of the world

After the battle of Komaki Nagakute, Hideyoshi begins to defeat the rebels.

1585 Beginning with the Battle of Kishuu, Shikoku's Chosokabe is also a vassal I was allowed to.

Hideyoshi's biggest opponent, Ieyasu Tokugawa, was 1586 . He made peace with Hideyoshi through the mediation of Nobukatsu Oda, but he continued to refuse Joraku without showing the intention of his vassal.

So Hideyoshi sent his real mother, Omandokoro, to Tokugawa as a hostage.

Ieyasu met Hideyoshi at Osaka Castle on October 26, 1586 in response to Hideyoshi's diplomatic tactics.

This event is confirmation of Hideyoshi's world Was meant.

As we approached the world, the official position from the imperial court went up.

1584 In addition, Junior Third Rank Dainagon The following year, Senior Second Rank Naidaijin Investiture to. The second rank was the same as Nobunaga. Initially Second Rank Minister of the Right It seems that he had been asked to take office, but Nobunaga refused because he was defeated by the Minister of the Right at the Honnoji Incident.

During the attack on Chosokabe in Shikoku, Konoe I was adopted by Kampaku and became Kampaku.

This inauguration of Kampaku seems to have been a great factor in making Ieyasu a vassal.

1586 From Emperor Ogimachi [ Toyotomi surname ], Daijo-daijin I was inaugurated and established the Toyotomi administration. At this time, the forces that did not follow Hideyoshi were Shimazu in Kyushu, Hojo in the Kanto region, and Date in the Tohoku region . was.

In Kyushu, Satsuma's Shimazu and Bungo's Otomo Was fighting.

Mr. Otomo's vassal, Muneshige Tachibana, struggled, but Mr. Shimazu's momentum did not stop, and the owner, Sorin Otomo, asked Hideyoshi for help. Hideyoshi, who saw this as an opportunity, used the imperial court authority to ban Yoshihisa Shimazu from fighting private battles between daimyo. Is issued. However, Yoshihisa Shimazu will pass through and win the "Battle of Hetsugigawa" as it is, but he will surrender because he cannot compete with the large army of Hideyoshi's 200,000.

After the Kyushu Campaign, Sou Safe Order against Kanto and Tohoku Was issued.

Since Hideyoshi's power at that time was absolute, Date Masamune Etc. seemed to be timing the servants. However, Hojo Ujimasa in the Kanto region is in the midst of a territorial dispute with the Sanada clan, and after issuing a safe order, he robs the Sanada clan's territory. The dispute with the Sanada clan, who was Toyotomi, is regarded as Hideyoshi's rebellion.

Hideyoshi could not overlook this cause, and he advanced 200,000 large troops to Odawara Castle as a violation of the Sou Safe Order. In this Hojo subjugation of Odawara, Date Masamune showed his intention to be a vassal, and three months later, the attack on Odawara was completed, and 1590 the world was unified . Did.

Toyotomi Hidetsugu Incident and Korean troop dispatch

In 1591, Hidenaga Toyotomi, a younger brother who supported Hideyoshi for many years, died.

From around this time, the Toyotomi administration began to ruin.

In addition, Tsurumatsu, who had been nominated as his successor, died of illness, and his reign adopted Hidetsugu Toyotomi, the son of his sister, and handed over the Kampaku profession. As a result, Hideyoshi came to be called the person who gave up Kampaku [His Highness Taiko].

In the same year, when Sen no Rikyu, who had been heavily used, was seppuku, he announced that he would send troops to Korea and built Nagoya Castle in Hizen Province. In the role of Bunroku in 1592, he declared war on Ming and the Korean Peninsula and sent 160,000 troops to the Korean Peninsula.

In the role of Bunroku, Toyotomi Hideyori is born between the concubine and Chacha.

With the birth of Hideyori, the Toyotomi Hidetsugu seppuku incident will occur.

This incident has resulted in further reduction of Hideyoshi's kinship, which is one of the few factors behind the destruction of the Toyotomi family after Hideyoshi's death.

In 1597, the results of the Korean troop dispatch did not go well, and peace negotiations with Ming broke down, but 140,000 troops were sent to the Korean Peninsula again. [ The role of Keicho ]

However, after finishing the cherry blossom viewing in March 1598, my physical condition deteriorated Ieyasu Tokugawa, Toshiie Maeda, Terumoto Mori, Takakage Kobayakawa *, Hideie Ukita . He called the Five Elders and entrusted him with a young Hideyori and died. * Takakage Kobayakawa died in 1597.

The famous death poem is

"Dew and dew, dew and disappear, my body, Namba is also a dream again"

After that, Ieyasu Tokugawa emerged and opened the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1601, but I would like to write about it at another time.

  • Why did you move from Fujiwara-kyo to Heijo-kyo? ??

    Speaking of the Nara period, 710 (What) wonderful Heijokyo I remember memorizing it by matching the goro. The relocation of Heijokyo in the former Mincho is also the boundary between the Asuka period and the Nara period. This time, I would like to find out the reason for moving to Heijokyo.

  • How did Fujiwara no Michinaga come to sing "Mochizuki no Uta"?

    This song is Fujiwara no Michinaga The third daughter, Takeko Ishi, is Emperor Go-Ichijo It is a famous song sung at the feast of the celebration. It is said that she was proud of her own glory in an unprecedented event in which Mitsuo stood in the family with her mother and sister, Empress Dowa

  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi was releasing slaves even when he was dispatched to Korea! ??

    Toyotomi Hideyoshi was 1592 The role of Bunroku , 1598 The role of Keicho And advanced the soldiers to the Korean Peninsula. This [ Korean troop dispatch ] Is often interpreted as a crazy idea caused by Hideyoshis gorgeousness, but in fact it is clear that it was a grand idea as well as b

  • Hideyoshi Toyotomi, the first full-scale liberation of slaves in Japan

    During the Warring States period, the property of the humans who lost the war was robbed, killed if they resisted, and sold as slaves even if they survived. Globally, such slavery was often heard, but it was very common in Japan until hundreds of years ago. Ashigaru of this era did not receive the