History of Asia

Tipu Sultan and the Anglo-Mysore Wars

Hyder Ali's death and the coronation of Tipu Sultan during the Second Anglo-Mysore War in the late 18th century is a major event in Mysore. Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan, like his father, was a great warrior in Indian history, who took over the command of Mysore after his father's death. Today by creating controversy in the name of Tipu Sultan, conspiracies are being made to erase his name, but it is impossible to erase Tipu Sultan's name from the pages of history. In fact, Tipu is the only sultan among Indian rulers who had attained martyrdom while fighting the British in an attempt to drive the British out of India.

Tipu's full name Sultan Fateh Alikhan Shahab T It was poo. This heroic son of Mother India 'Devanahalli of Kolar district of Karnataka ' (Yusufabad) was born on November 20, 1750. His father's name is Hyder Ali And mother's name Fakrunnisa (Fatima) It was. Tipu's father Hyder Ali was a soldier of the Kingdom of Mysore, who on the strength of his ability and strength became the ruler of Mysore in 1761 AD.

Tipu was educated as a Muslim prince. He could converse in Arabic, Persian, Kannada and Urdu and was adept at horse riding, wielding guns and swords. He did not like to ride in the palanquin as he considered it suitable only for women and patients. Like his father Hyder Ali, Tipu was capable, mighty, learned, and a lover of music and architecture. Impressed by his valor, his father Hyder Ali called him 'Sher-e-Mysore ' (Lion of Mysore ) was awarded. This lion of Mysore got martyred on May 4, 1799 while fighting the British in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War.

Though Tipu was as brave, courageous as his father Hyder Ali He was a skilled general and ambitious, but he lacked the political prudence and diplomatic tact of Hyder Ali. His father had started expanding the power of Mysore in the south. Due to this, along with the British, the Nizam and Maratha also became his enemies. Tipu won the first war against the British at the age of 18 and the British were forced to sign the Treaty of Mangalore.

Hyder Ali and Anglo-Mysore Relations

Third Anglo-Mysore War (Anglo-Mysore War III, 1790-1792 AD.)

It was clear from the beginning that the Treaty of Mangalore was only a ceasefire. This treaty did not end the root of the dispute between Tipu and the British, but averted the war. The British considered Tipu to be their worst enemy in the south, which became a major obstacle for them in the victory of South India. Tipu also hated the British very much and was adamant on driving them out of India considering the biggest threat to his independence.

If Tipu had acted with political foresight and returned the land that his father had conquered to the Nizam and the Marathas, he would have formed a permanent friendship with them and the British would Do not dare to attack. But on the contrary, Tipu relied more on French aid. He sent his envoys to France and Turkey to receive foreign aid. Tipu did not get any benefit from this, but the suspicion of the British increased further.

Although 1784 E.K Pitts Act It was made clear that the Company would not attempt to conquer any new territories, yet Cornwallis knew that a war with Tipu was inevitable. So he took Guntur from the Nizam after Basalatjung's death so that the northern government could be linked to Karnataka. He assured the Nizam that the British would help him get back the territories that Tipu had occupied. Thus Cornwallis Established friendly relations with Nizam and Marathas and formed a three-party organization against Tipu in 1790 AD.

Third Anglo-Mysore War in 1790 AD got started. The quarrel started when the Maharaja of Travancore tried to buy Jacoute and Kraganur located in the princely state of Cochin from the Dutch people. Tipu considered Cochin under his control and, considering this effort of Travancore as interference in his power, attacked Travancore in April, 1790 AD. The British were already sitting ready, they took the side of the king of Travancore because in 1784 AD there was a treaty between them to this effect.

Cornwallis attacked Mysore from all sides with the help of Nizam and Marathas. Tipu fought with the British for two years. Cornwallis himself had to take the lead and he conquered Bangalore in March, 1791 AD via Vellore and Ambur. Due to lack of resources, Tipu was not in a position to fight for long. With the help of the Marathas and the Nizam, the British surrounded Srirangapatna and in February 1792, the outer defense of Srirangapatnam was demolished. As a result Tipu was forced to March , 1792 Treaty of Srirangapatnam in AD Had to do it.

According to the Treaty of Srirangapatnam, Tipu had to give half the kingdom to the British and his allies, which was divided among the members of the Trinity. The British got the Bada Mahal, Malabar in the west and the territories of Dindigal in the south. The region between the Krishna and Panna rivers was given to the Nizam and western Karnataka to the Marathas. The state of Coorg, which was under Tipu's suzerainty, was taken by Cornwallis under the protection of the British. Along with this Tipu also had to pay war damages of three crore thirty lakh rupees and accepted to keep his two sons as hostages with the British.

Thus Tipu was defeated in the Third Anglo-Mysore War Heavy losses had to be suffered and almost half of its territories were controlled by the British, Marathas and Nizams. With great difficulty he was able to save his kingdom.

Cornwallis is often criticized for hasty the Treaty of Srirangapatnam and left Tipu's destruction incomplete. It is also true that if Cornwallis wanted, he could have annihilated Tipu's power and occupied the whole of Mysore, but by not doing so, he only showed his diplomacy. The Kingdom of Mysore protected Karnataka from Maratha invasions and therefore it was necessary to maintain it until the British increased their power by destroying the power of the Marathas. Thus Cornwallis wanted to keep Mysore as a buffer state between the British and Maratha territories. Moreover, taking over Mysore would also make the Nizam and Maratha suspicious and they could change their policy towards the British. Perhaps that is why he wrote to the chairman of the Guardian Committee:'We have effectively paralyzed our enemy and did not allow our comrades to become too powerful.'

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (Anglo-Mysore War IV, 1799 AD.)

One ​​of the main policies of the East India Company in India was 'First fight, then adopt a policy of peace to prepare yourself for war.' In 1798 AD, Ghor Imperialist Lord Wellesley Governor-General of India Came as At this time the British were fighting for life and death with France all over the world. Wellesley wanted to completely destroy the French activities in India. India was also under threat of French invasion due to Napoleon's Egyptian campaign. Mysore was the main center of French activities in India. Tipu could never forget his lost kingdom in 1792 AD. He continued to strengthen his army for his inevitable war with the British. He also negotiated an alliance with revolutionary France and sent his envoys to Afghanistan, Arabia and Turkey to form an anti-British alliance.

On the other hand, the British Governor General Lord Wellesley had decided that either Tipu should be completely abolished or he should be completely subdued. He accused Tipu of violating the Treaty of Srirangapatam that he was conspiring against the British with the Nizam and the Marathas or to form a front against the British in Arab, Zamanshah of Afghanistan, Kustuntuniya, Mauritius with the French officers. is behaving. He asked Tipu to accept the Subsidiary Pact, but he did not agree to the Subsidiary Pact.

East India Company in association with Nizam of Hyderabad April , 1799 E. He declared war against Tipu for the fourth time. Tipu did not get any help from any Indian ruler. The British forces attacked Mysore from all sides. General Harris from Karnataka, General Stuart from Coorg, Colonel Sir Arthur Wellesley from Hyderabad, Colonel Reid and Colonel Brown from the south started moving together towards Srirangapatam. Lord Wellesley handed over the battle front to his younger brother Sir Arthur Wellesley and himself came to Madras. Tipu had made the border fortifications a defense line, but the British artillery broke this defense line. Arthur Wellesley and General Harris defeated Tipu at a place called Mallavali. General Stuart 1799 E. In the Battle of Sedasari I defeated Tipu. Due to these defeats, Tipu was forced to in the fort of Srirangapatam Had to take refuge. The British army surrounded the fort. Tipu attempted to negotiate a treaty, but the terms of the treaty were so humiliating that Tipu refused to make a treaty. He proudly declared, 'It is better to die as a warrior than to live as a pitiful slave of the infidels and to be included in the list of their pensioned kings and nawabs .' This lion of Mysore while protecting his capital Srirangapatna 4 May , 1799 E. He attained martyrdom and the British took control of the fort. According to P. E. Roberts, 'Thus the main power of India collapsed, which was always trying to destroy the British power. For the success of this war, Wellesley is given the Marquis's Degree awarded. He had destroyed the most ardent enemy of the British.

Tipu's army remained loyal to him till the end . His family members were imprisoned in Vellore. About half of his kingdom was divided between the British and their ally Nizam. The rest of the Kingdom of Mysore was given back to a minor boy of the old Wadiyar dynasty. By forcing the new king, a special subsidiary treaty was signed, according to which the governor-general could handle the rule of the state himself, if he felt the need. Now the power of the Mysore state came to an end and the Marathas remained the only enemy of the British in South India.

administrative system of Tipu Sultan (Tipu Sultan's Administrative System)

The 18th century was dominated by an autocratic monarchy, so even Tipu's administration could not be different from it. The Sultan was the center of all military, civilian and political power in the country, he was his foreign minister, chief general and judge. Although Tipu was autocratic, but he used to perform his functions like a restrained, compassionate, hardworking and dutiful ruler and always worked for the benefit of his subjects.

Central Administration: Innovative Tipu was very much in love with new reforms and experiments. He reformed the system of governance inherited by his father. According to Dodwell, 'he was the first Indian king who tried to apply western traditions to the Indian subjects.' Decisions were taken by majority after full debate, but the final decision was made by the Sultan.

Tipu's administration did not have a prime minister or a wazir. There were seven main departments namely revenue and finance, army, artillery, commerce, sailors, treasury and typing, which were under Mir Asif who was responsible to the Sultan himself. Apart from this, there were also three smaller departments namely Post and Intelligence, Public Works and Animal Department.

Provincial and Local Administration: Tipu's kingdom had 7 provinces earlier, but later he increased the number of provinces of his kingdom to 17. The chief officers of the provinces were asifs (civil governors) and faujdars (military chiefs) and both exercised control over each other. Provinces were divided into districts, districts into villages. The local administration was managed by the village panchayats.

Land Tax System: Tipu tried to make the land tax system more efficient. He tried to increase the state income by abolishing the practice of giving jagirs. He also tried to reduce the ancestral property of the Poligars and to eliminate the intermediaries between the state and the peasants. But his land revenue was as high as that of other contemporary rulers. He used to take up to one-third of the produce as land revenue. किंतु उसने अब्वाबों की वसूली पर रोक लगा दी। वह भू-राजस्व में भी छूट देने में उदार था।

टीपू सुल्तान ने अधिकाधिक भूमि को जोत में लाने का प्रयास किया। इसके लिए उसने किसानों को हल तथा पशुओं के लिए तकावी श्रण दिया। उसने अपने पिता द्वारा शुरू की गई लालबाग परियोजना को सफलतापूर्वक पूरा किया तथा जल भंडारण के लिए कावेरी नदी के उस स्थान पर एक बाँध की नींव रखी, जहाँ आज कृष्णराज सागर बाँध मौजूद है। किसानों को प्रोत्साहन देने के लिए उसके आमिल जैसे अधिकारी राज्य में भ्रमण करते रहते थे।

व्यापार और वाणिज्य: टीपू आधुनिक उद्योग और व्यापार के महत्त्व से भलीभाँति परिचित था। भारतीय शासकों में यही एकमात्र शासक था जो आर्थिक शक्ति के महत्त्व को सैनिक शक्ति की नींव मानता था। उसने आधुनिक उद्योगों की शुरूआत के लिए प्रयास भी किया। उसने विदेशों से कारीगर बुलाये और कई उद्योगों को राज्य की ओर से सहायता दिया। विदेश व्यापार के विकास के लिए उसने फ्रांस, तुर्की और ईरान में अपने दूत भेजे। उसका विचार चीन और पीगू से भी व्यापार करने का था और इसके लिए उसने एक व्यापार बोर्ड का गठन भी किया था।

टीपू ने चंदन, सुपारी, कालीमिर्च, मोटी इलायची, सोने तथा चाँदी के व्यापार तथा हाथियों के निर्यात को सरकार के एकाधिकार में रखा। उसने राज्य में कारखाने भी लगवाये जहाँ युद्ध के लिए गोला, बारूद, कागज, चीनी, रेशम, छोटे उपकरण तथा कलात्मक वस्तुएँ बनाई जाती थीं। वास्तव में टीपू की व्यापारिक नीति का मुख्य उद्देश्य सरकार को प्रमुख व्यापारिक संस्था बनाना तथा राजकोष को भरना था। वह आर्थिक गतिविधियों को सैनिक और राजनैतिक हितों के अधीन लाना चाहता था।

सैनिक प्रशासन : समकालीन विवशताओं के कारण टीपू को अपना अधिकांश समय सैनिक तैयारी में ही लगाना पड़ा। उसने यूरोपीय सेना के नमूने पर अपनी पदाति सेना को बंदूकों और संगीनों से सुसज्जित किया, किंतु इन हथियारों को मैसूर में ही बनाया जाता था। उसने अपनी सेना को फ्रांसीसी कमांडरों द्वारा प्रशिक्षण का प्रबंध किया और एक फ्रांसीसी टुकड़ी तैयार की। किंतु धीरे-धीरे उसकी सेना में फ्रांसीसी सैनिकों की संख्या कम होती चली गई।

हैदरअली और टीपू दोनों ने नौसेना के महत्त्व को समझा, किंतु वे कभी भी अंग्रेजों की बराबरी नहीं कर सके। हैदरअली ने जिन जलपोतों को बनाया था, वे सभी एडवर्ड ह्यूज ने 1780 ई. में मंगलौर आक्रमण के समय नष्ट कर दिया था। जब तीसरे आंग्ल-मैसूर युद्ध में अंग्रेजों ने मालाबार तट के प्रदेशों पर अधिकार कर लिया, तो टीपू सुल्तान के लिए नौसेना का महत्त्व और भी बढ़ गया। 1796 ई. में उसने एक आधुनिक नौसेना खड़ी करने की कोशिश की थी। उसने एक नौसेना बोर्ड का गठन किया और 22 युद्धपोत तथा 20 बड़े फिगेट बनाने की योजना बनाई थी। उसने मंगलौर, वाजिदाबाद तथा मोलीदाबाद में पोतघाट बनाया तथा जहाजों के नमूने स्वयं तैयार कराये थे। अंग्रेज श्रीरंगापट्टनम से दो राकेट ब्रिटेन के वूलविच संग्रहालय की आर्टिलरी गैलरी में प्रदर्शनी के लिए ले गये थे। भारत के पूर्व राष्ट्रपति एवं महान् वैज्ञानिक डॉ. ए.पी.जे. अब्दुल कलाम ने टीपू सुल्तान को विश्व का सबसे पहला राकेट आविष्कारक Told.

वास्तव में टीपू के संसाधन अंग्रेजों की अपेक्षा बहुत कम थे। उसे अपनी सीमित शक्तियों का ज्ञान था, ‘मैं अंग्रेजों के स्थल-साधनों को तो समाप्त कर सकता हूँ , किंतु मैं समुद्र तो नहीं सुखा सकता .'

टीपू सुल्तान का मूल्यांकन (Evaluation of Tipu Sultan)

टीपू 18वीं शताब्दी के किसी अन्य भारतीय शासक की तुलना में दक्षिण भारत या दूसरे भारतीय शासकों के लिए अंग्रेजी राज के खतरे को अधिक ठीक तरह से समझता था। उदीयमान अंग्रेजी सत्ता के सामने वह दृढ़-निश्चयी शत्रु के रूप में खड़ा हुआ और अंग्रेज भी उसको अपना सबसे खतरनाक दुश्मन समझते थे। वह एक दुस्साहसी योद्धा था और अत्यंत प्रतिभाशाली सेनानायक था। उसकी प्रिय उक्ति थी: ‘शेर की तरह एक दिन जीना बेहतर है, लेकिन भेड़ की तरह लम्बी जिंदगी जीना अच्छा नहीं।’ इसी विश्वास का पालन करते हुए वह श्रीरंगपट्टनम के द्वार पर लड़ता हुआ वीरगति को प्राप्त हुआ।

टीपू जटिल चरित्रवाला और नये विचारों को ढूढ़ निकालने वाला व्यक्ति था। एक नये कैलेंडर को लागू करना, सिक्का-ढलाई की नई प्रणाली काम में लाना, वर्षों तथा महीनों के लिए अरबी नामों का प्रयोग करना तथा माप-तौल के नये पैमानों को अपनाना उसकी समय के साथ अपने को बदलने की इच्छा के प्रतीक थे। उसके निजी पुस्तकालय में धर्म, इतिहास, सैन्य-विज्ञान, औषधि विज्ञान और गणित जैसे विविध विषयों की पुस्तकें थीं। वह पाश्चात्य विज्ञान और राजनीतिक दर्शन का सच्चा गुणग्राही था। उसकी फ्रांसीसी क्रांति में गहरी दिलचस्पी थी, अपनी राजधानी श्रीरंगापट्टनम में ‘स्वतंत्रता-वृक्ष’ लगवाया और स्वयं एक जैकोबिन क्लब का सदस्य बना। वह स्वयं को ‘नागरिक टीपू’ कहलाना पसंद करता था। टॉमस मुनरो ने टीपू के बारे में सही लिखा है कि, ‘नवीनता की अविभ्रांत भावना तथा प्रत्येक वस्तु के स्वयं ही प्रसूत होने की रक्षा उसके चरित्र की मुख्य विशेषता थी।’

प्रशासक और शासक के रूप में टीपू सफल रहा और उसकी सराहना उसके विरोधियों ने भी की है। टीपू के जमाने में मैसूर के बारे में पर्यवेक्षक मूर लिखता है, ‘यह राज्य खेती-बाड़ी में बढ़ा-चढ़ा, परिश्रमी लोगों की घनी आबादी वाला, नये-नये नगरों वाला और वाणिज्य-व्यापार में बढोत्तरी वाला था।’ सर जॉन शोर ने भी लिखा है कि ‘टीपू के राज्य के किसानों को संरक्षण मिलता था तथा उनको श्रम के लिए प्रोत्साहित और पुरस्कृत किया जाता था। टीपू को अपने सैनिकों की राजभक्ति और विश्वास भी प्राप्त है।’ उसकी सांगठनिक क्षमता का प्रमाण यह है कि जिन दिनों भारतीय सैनिकों के बीच अनुशासनहीनता बहुत सारधारण बात थी, उसके सैनिक अंत तक अनुशासित और उसके प्रति वफादार बने रहे।

साम्राज्यवादी लेखकों ने अपने विकट शत्रु टीपू को बदनाम करने के लिए ‘सीधा-सादा दैत्य ' तथा धार्मिक उन्मादी के रूप में चित्रित has done. यद्यपि अपने धार्मिक दृष्टिकोण में वह काफी रूढ़िवादी था, किंतु दूसरे धर्मों के प्रति उसका दृष्टिकोण सहिष्णु और उदार था। उसने हिंदू कुर्गों और नायरों का दमन किया, तो मुसलमान मोपलाओं को भी क्षमा नहीं किया। यह सही है कि भारतीय शासकों ने उसका साथ नहीं दिया, किंतु उसने किसी भी भारतीय शासक के विरुद्ध, चाहे वह हिंदू हो या मुसलमान, अंग्रेजों से गठबंधन नहीं किया। उसने अपने शासन के सभी महत्त्वपूर्ण प्रशासनिक पदों पर हिंदुओं की नियुक्ति की थी। 1791 ई. में जब मराठा घुड़सवारों ने श्रृंगेरी के शारदा मंदिर को लूटा, तो उसने न केवल मंदिर के टूटे भाग की मरम्मत करवाई, बल्कि शारदादेवी की मूर्ति स्थापना के लिए धन भी दिया। टीपू अनेक हिंदू मंदिरों को नियमित रूप से भेंट दिया करता था। उसने श्रीरंगापट्टनम के दुर्ग में स्थित रंगनाथ नरसिंह अथवा गंगाधारेश्वर के मंदिरों की पूजा में कभी हस्तक्षेप नहीं किया, जो उसके महल से बमुश्किल 100 गज की दूरी पर था। इसलिए टीपू पर धर्मांधता होने का आरोप लगाना उचित नहीं है।

टीपू निश्चय ही दक्षिण भारत के इतिहास का एक आकर्षक व्यक्तित्व है। मैसूर के इस शेर ने कभी अपना स्वाभिमान नहीं छोड़ा और वेलेजली की सहायक संधि को कभी स्वीकार नहीं किया। अपनी देशभक्ति तथा स्वतंत्रता के लिए अपने संघर्ष के कारण उसका नाम भारतीय स्वतंत्रता के इतिहास में अमर रहेगा।