History of North America

Civil War hero! 18th President of the United States Ulysses Grant

Since the first president, George Washington, many American presidents are war heroes or lawyers.

Ulysses Grant, the 18th president of the United States immediately after the Civil War, is probably the representative of the former.

Civil War Hero

Ulysses Grant (Ulysses is an English reading of Odyssey), named after the Trojan War hero, was born in Ohio in 1822.

At the age of 17, he entered the Army Military School at the recommendation of Congressman Thomas Hammer, because he registered under the name of Ulysses Simpson Grant instead of his real name, Hyrum Ulysses Grant. Since then, Grant's real name has been a rare experience of becoming Ulysses Simpson Grant.

Grant then became an officer, gaining martial arts during the American-Mexico War, being promoted to lieutenant colonel, but resigning from the army due to excessive drinking, and then running a farm in St. Louis.

Later, when the Civil War began, the Union Army initially asked Robert Lee to become a general, but Lee refused because he was from a prestigious class in Virginia and became a general of the South Army.

Grant initially participated as a Union Army captain, became a general in 1862 for his achievements at Fort Donelson, and continued to play an active role in battles at Shiro, Vicksburg, Chatanuga, etc. Defeated General Lee of the Union Army in battles such as Petersburg and Appomattox, and became a general by Lincoln after the Civil War.

At this time, Grant was appointed to the position of "general" sealed by George Washington, which shows Lincoln's high reputation for him.

Grant is sometimes criticized for winning at the expense of human-wave tactics like Maresuke Nogi in Japan, but during the Civil War, about 154,000 Union troops died under Grant's command, the Union Army. It is known that the death toll was 191,000, which was less than the Union Army's casualties, and it is now generally recognized as the best commander during the Civil War.

18th President of the United States

When Lincoln was assassinated, Vice President Andrew Johnson became president, and Grant's achievements led him to reign at the top of the Army.

But he was disappointed when Johnson began to practice reactionary politics, and he became one of the most radical Republicans.

He won the presidential election in 1868 with more than half, setting the youngest record at the time and becoming the 18th president of the United States.

Grant has been evaluated as the best general in the history of the United States as a military officer, but has been evaluated as one of the lowest in terms of politics, and during his tenure, the "Whiskey Corruption Case" It was an era when corrupt corruption, as represented by such things, was widespread.

Grant himself wasn't involved in corruption, but his ministers and aides were messing with corruption one after another, and although Grant was reelected, his corruption scandal didn't stop and he supported the Grant administration. The rate gradually declines.

After the Civil War, the United States has entered the so-called "Gilded Age," an era in which various industrial capitalists have grown by cohesion with political forces.

After the Civil War, interest in slavery diminished, and people's interests shifted to the growing problem of industrial capitalists and workers. It can be said that the latter half of the 19th century was an era in which the conflict between capitalists and workers began to intensify worldwide, and it was also an era in which socialist forces made a leap forward. In Germany across the sea, it was an era when Prussian Minister Bismarck was trying to enact the Anti-Socialist Law, and the confrontational structure between capitalists and exploited workers linked to the country became apparent, and that The problem continues to this day.

On the other hand, in the south, discrimination against black people intensified, and radicals such as KKK and Lynch cases did not follow, and white people who advocated discrimination against black people connected with former Navy military forces and armed and occupied the Louisiana state parliament. Is also happening.

Grant immediately sent troops to the incident, but public opinion blamed Grant for the entry of the army into the chamber of the state legislature, and Grant stopped sending troops after a similar incident in the South.

As a result, discrimination against black people intensified in the south, and a notorious system called the "convict leasing system" was born.

This was a system that made up minor crimes against black people, imprisoned them in prison, and then lent prisoners to companies at a low price. Become.

The Indian policy did not carry out the fierce slaughter of former President Jackson, but forced Christianity to Americanize the Indians, culturally imposed them against them, and turned the Sioux into a snowy mountain. The policy was not humane, such as causing a large number of deaths in an attempt to relocate.

Grant eventually reached the presidency without much achievement.

Grant said he traveled around the world when he was released from his presidency. At that time, he also stopped by Japan and had a meeting with Emperor Meiji at Hamarikyu Gardens, and he was actually the first person to visit Japan as an experienced president of the United States.

In 1885, Grant died in New York. His autobiography, which he wrote in his lifetime, was completed a few days before his death and became a bestseller after his death.

Personal evaluation of Ulysses Grant

In ancient Rome, there was no distinction between military personnel and civilians. Julius Caesar and others were excellent commanders, politicians, and originally lawyers. However, since modern times, few have succeeded as both military and politicians. Grant would have been a classic example.

Grant was excellent as a soldier, but undeniably lacking in power as a president.

Black discrimination has been exacerbated by the sweet policies of Johnson, Grant and the South since Lincoln.

On the other hand, however, the American economy grew exponentially during this period, and industrial capitalists with tremendous power such as Carnegie and Rockefeller were born.