History of Europe

The powers of Charlemagne.

Charles I the Great , called Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus), was King of the Franks from 768 until his death. He expanded the various Frankish kingdoms into an Empire incorporating much of Western and Central Europe. He conquered Italy and was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III on December 25, 800 in Rome.
His "powers" were based on the sword Durandarte (which he would later give to his nephew Roldán ):

Charlemagne sealed his decrees with the knob of Durandarte saying:
-These are the orders I give.
Branding the sword with which he had sealed them, he added:
-And here is the sword with which that I will enforce them if necessary.