Ancient history

The emergence of the Great Empire and Parthian Empire by Alexander the Great

King of Macedonia Alexander the Great since the second half of the 4th century BC However, in addition to the Orient world, it expanded to the northwestern part of India, but the death of Alexander destroyed the great empire.

Let's take a look at the Orient world since the time when Alexandros was active.

The emergence and destruction of the Great Empire by Alexander the Great

Alexandros Was active around the 4th century BC and was founded by the ancient Greeks around 700 BC . He was crowned King of the Argead Dynasty (Basileus) of the Kingdom of Macedonia.

The scale of the heyday of the Kingdom of Macedonia is hidden from the generation of Alexandros' father.

Modified the Kingdom of Macedonia (Wikipedia)

Alexandros, who succeeded the assassinated father after Macedonia became a power to some extent (I'm not sure if he assassinated his father?) Eastern expedition in 334 BC / strong> Depart for conquer Egypt .. Furthermore, the powerful Achaemenid Persia is also destroyed . ..

In the father's era, only the dark orange part on the map above (although it was one of the best compared to other dynasties) was the territory of Macedonia, but Alexandros is not only Macedonia but also Egypt. We have succeeded in controlling a very wide area of ​​Greece, Syria, Anatolia, Iran, India and parts of Central Asia.

Detailed World History Book Yamakawa Publishing Co., Ltd.

However, the great empire that accelerated its power at once collapsed at once with the death of Alexandros . .. Egypt is Ptolemaic dynasty In addition, most of Asia is Greek Seleucid Syria , Antigonid Dynasty Macedonia It will be divided into such things.

What is Seleucid Empire Syria?

Seleucid Empire Syria Was the king before the founding of the country, and Alexandros expanded Macedonia in a short period of time. It is said that he did not dare to decide "a strong person" for his successor, and multiple candidates for succession came up.

One of the people who gave that name was the Macedonian Greek Seleucus , a military commander who emerged during the eastern expedition during Alexander the Great. .. The dynasty founded by this warlord named Seleucus is the Seleucid is. It inherited most of the Asian territory in 312 BC.

Based in Babylon, it was such a large country that it once dominated a very large territory, from Asia Minor (Anatolia) to parts of India.

The Seleucid ruled a very large territory However, the repeated Ptolemy dynasties We will reduce the national power due to the battle with. It became decisive from around 250 BC. Seleucid Empire Multiple independent nations have been born from.

  • Afghanistan ⇒ Greek state Bactrian Is independent (256 BC)
  • Central Asia (around the southeastern part of the Caspian Sea) ⇒ Parni nation Parthian Is independent (247 BC)
  • Asia Minor (Anatolia) ⇒ Pergamon Is independent

The territory of control will be greatly reduced, and the period until the destruction will be limited to controlling only a part of Syria.

Many territories came under Parthian rule, and in the 1st century BC they were attacked by Rome, which controlled the Mediterranean Sea, and were destroyed (I will write about the relationship with Rome in another article).

What is the Ptolemaic dynasty? ??

Like Seleucus, the dynasty founded by Macedonian Ptolemaic I, the successor to Alexander the Great, is the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. is.

Also known as the Lagos dynasty. Like the many dynasties that have emerged in Egypt, he called the king a pharaoh and built a centralized nation.

By the way, when you are told to "think of an ancient Egyptian person", about half of the 10 people will come up with a name, "Cleopatra", who is a Ptolemy person.

It has long been hostile to the Seleucid dynasty over Syria and the Antigonid dynasty over the islands of the Aegean Sea and Cyprus. Both were dynasties created by the successors of Alexander the Great, and it can be said that the battle for successors changed shape and continued for a long time.

Eventually it was subordinate to Rome and was destroyed after internal conflict.

The emergence of Bactria, Parthian, and Pergamon

In the middle of the 3rd century BC, the Greeks of the upper Seleucid territory became independent Bactrian . To establish a country.

The Iranian nomadic Parni Arquesas is also Parthian in a region that straddles Iran and some Central Asian territories of the Seleucid dynasty. Was founded.

Kingdom of Bactria

The Kingdom of Bactria has emerged in parts of what is now northern Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. (Also with the Kingdom of Greco-Bactria).

Bactria Was a very unstable land in an area that was quite resistant during the Alexandros eastern expedition. The rapid expansion of the territory of control by Alexandros has also led to the creation of disturbing elements in the Greeks who have their roots, and as part of the policy to segregate such disturbing elements, the Greek colonization policy to Bactria was carried out. It is also said to have been.

With such historical background, the Greeks' dissatisfaction in the Bactrian region was growing, and in 256 BC, the Greek Diodotus, who was the governor of the Seleucid dynasty, rebelled.

Kingdom of Bactria , partly because of the unstable land that started with the colonial city The rule system is underdeveloped, the kingship is weak, and the nation is divided many times.

Naturally, there was a strong period even in such a Bactrian dynasty, and we advanced to India by taking advantage of the decline of the Maurya dynasty in India around 200 BC. Gandara art after being introduced to Japan Did it also affect you? It seems that it is thought in one theory.

It is said that it was finally destroyed by the Scythian Tocharians of the Eurasian nomads who invaded from the north around 150 BC, and by the Iranian Otsuki, a nomad who came from the east after being chased by Xiongnu.


Parthian born in the southeastern part of the Caspian Sea around 247 BC .. It is also called the Parthian Empire from the name of the founder Persian and nomadic Parni Arsaces.

Parthians also interacted with the Han dynasty, as it is known that the person sent by China (then the Western Han) to learn about the western world of the Silk Road called Parthian a "resting country." Parthian Empire was on the Silk Road, a trade route between Rome in the Mediterranean and the Han Dynasty in China Because of trade and commerce It is.

Parthian Although it was the enemy of the eyes from the independent Seleucid dynasty when the country was just founded.

  • Prospered by trade, Parthian itself gained national power
  • Weakening of the Seleucid dynasty due to worsening relations between the Seleucid dynasty and Rome further west

Gradually, Parthia will have an advantage over the Seleucid dynasty.

Battle with Rome

When Rome, which ruled the Mediterranean Sea at that time, destroyed the Seleucid dynasty, Parthian emperor developed into a battle over the rule of Rome and Armenia (the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea). There was actually a war between 1983 and 1988.

The peace treaty was finally signed with a compromise that the Parthian emperor would take the throne of Armenia and the Roman emperor would confer that throne.

However, this peace treaty also became a mere corpse in the early 110s, and Rome decided to intervene due to the intervention of the Armenian throne by the Parthian king.

For, just as the time of intervention was about to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the Roman king's coronation, the Roman king saw Parthian's act as an insult.

… Of course, the fact is that the insult to the memorial festival is a decision that the Roman side has an advantage in front of the building.

  • It was a strategic base for land and sea trade
  • I want to prevent Parthian influence on the provinces east of Rome

It seems that the above reasons were great.

Parthian embarrassed against Rome, who decided to intervene in the military, decided to dethrone King Armenia, who had once taken the throne. On top of that, a new

"Let's decide the king in the same way as before"

I propose to Rome, but of course it is rejected.

By the way, it is speculated that Parthian Empire was not stable during the intervention in the Armenian throne after the peace treaty was signed, because coin issuance was delayed or conversely, coins were issued by those who were not on the throne. increase.

One of the reasons for the instability of the administration is that Parthian Empire was "lacking unity" because it was a strategic point of trade and it was easy for people as well as goods to enter from abroad. Unless you have a common religion or culture,

"Our country"

If there is no recognition that "the morale does not rise in the battle", there is a stronger tendency to choose the king for better governance by "my own profit and loss". Parthian seems to have been no exception.

As is still the case today, the Parthian side may have raised the territorial dispute "to unite the country" rather than arguing with Armenia because they were confident in their national power.

The fall of the Parthians and the rise of a new force born on the Iranian plateau

Parthian vs. Rome The fire of the battle was dropped, but the situation in the country is disjointed and there is no way to beat the Mediterranean champion at that time.

Eventually, in this battle, even the mouth of the Tigris Euphrates will be under Roman occupation. He gave the king of the Roman province a major part of the occupied territory and settled on the new Parthian throne by establishing a Roman-educated Parthian brother.

However, even though he lost, Parthian Empire in the east. Even in Rome, the rebellion made it difficult to maintain Mesopotamia, and withdrew from Mesopotamia. The newly established king will also stand as the king of the buffer zone of Rome and Parthian Empire, not as the home country of Parthian Empire.

After that, interference from Rome and the battle for succession to the throne continued, weakening. The new Sassanid that has risen around the Iranian plateau It was decided to be destroyed by.


The northwestern part of the Anatolian Peninsula in the middle of the 3rd century BC or earlier ... The Pergamon Kingdom became independent with the city of Pergamon facing the Aegean Sea as the royal capital. (Attalid dynasty).

It was hostile to the Seleucid Syria, but initially had a good relationship with the Roman Republic.

One of the successors to Alexander the Great is the Greek dynasty Antigonid dynasty When Rome and the Antigonid dynasty fought, it participated as an ally of Rome.

When Pergamon is driven into the Seleucid dynasty, seek help from Rome and survive the crisis.

However, when Rome destroyed the Antigonid dynasty, Pergamon was targeted, and the last king transferred his land to Rome because he had no successor. After 133 BC, the Kingdom of Pergamon was destroyed and prospered as a cultural center as the Roman province of Asia.

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