Ancient history

The Hittites

Around 2000 BC ., the Indo-European population of the Hittites , coming from the Caucasus , settled in Anatolia (today's Turkey), taking over from a non-Indo-European population, the Hatti .

At the top of the company was the king.
He was joined by a warrior aristocracy gathered in an assembly called panku .

Their economy was based on agriculture and on the exploitation of the mineral resources of the region, particularly rich in silver.
The land was worked by both free peasants and serf-slaves.
Ma the name of the Hittites remains linked to the skillful working of iron, of which they managed to keep the secret for a long time, making it their strength.

From Anatolia, the Hittites they began an expansion movement that led them to build a vast domain thanks to the use of two-wheeled spoked chariots in battle, pulled by domesticated horses, and the use of iron weapons .
With an unusual political choice for the times, the Hittites instead of enslaving the conquered populations, they made them their allies, through treaties of subordination, which obliged the local sovereigns to swear allegiance to the Hittite king .

In 1595 BC the Hittites they reached and plundered distant and rich Babylon.
The pinnacle of Hittite power it was reached around 1350 BC when it took over, under the reign of Shuppiluliuma , control of much of the Syrian area, up to Kadesh .
A little further on began the area of ​​influence of the Egyptian power, which was still in the period of maximum expansion under the dynasties of the New Kingdom.
The Egyptians , who wanted to regain control over Syria , in 1275 BC, led by the pharaoh Ramses II they clashed with the Hittites - led by King Muwatalli - just in Kadesh: there were neither losers nor winners.

Around 1200 BC the Frigi attacked Anatolia and the Hittites they could not resist:the capital Hattusa was destroyed and the Hittite Empire collapsed.