Ancient history


Cleopatra , queen of Egypt from 51-30 BC, was the daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes.

She spoke six languages, was an admirable politician and knew how to use her seduction to secure a favorable position for Egypt within Rome's growing influence.

Biography of Cleopatra

Cleopatra is the name seven queens of Egypt. The best known was Cleopatra VII (Alexandria 69 BC to 30 BC -Alexandria), queen from 51-30 BC, during the Roman conquest.

Daughter of Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra was the first Greek queen to speak Egyptian, adopt certain pharaonic beliefs and wanted to restore Egypt to its former splendour.

She ascended the throne at age 18 and faced a war against her brother.

Later, she was Julius Caesar's mistress, who granted her the throne of Egypt. Then she had a relationship with Mark Antony. From both of them she had children who were destined to be sovereigns.

With the defeat of Mark Antony by the troops of Otávio Augusto, the first commits suicide. In order not to become a toy in the hands of the new conqueror, Cleopatra also kills herself, allowing herself to be bitten by a snake.

Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt

As stipulated by her father, she reigned alongside her brother and then married him, a common practice of this dynasty. Because of the conflicts that arise between the young queen and her brother's supporters, Cleopatra asks Rome for help in trying to turn the Roman invasion into a favorable alliance for Egypt.

Thus, she becomes Julius Caesar's lover and, later, the mother of his son. Caesar risks his position, but defends Cleopatra's rights to the throne. He quells the rebellion in Alexandria and makes her the sole queen of Egypt.

Then Cleopatra meets with Julius Caesar in Rome, but is not welcomed there due to intrigues, especially from those who wanted to kill him. After Julius Caesar's assassination, she returns to Egypt with her son.

See also:Pharaoh

Relationships with Mark Antony

In Rome, the Second Triumvirate formed by Mark Antony, Octavius ​​and Lepidus, plans the expansion of Roman dominions to the East.

Therefore, Mark Antony summons Cleopatra to a meeting in the city of Cilicia. The queen went in a vessel adorned with gold and silver in order to show all the wealth and power of Egypt. Mark Antony falls in love with her, but must return to Rome to marry Octavia.

Despite giving birth to twins, Alexander and Cleopatra, the queen found herself isolated following the return of Mark Antony. In 37 BC, at Antony's request, she undertook an expedition against the Parthians and the two join in Antioch.

The third son, Ptolemy Philadelphius, was born the following year, but the war against the Parthians ends in defeat and Octavius ​​uses this fact to incite the Romans against Mark Antony.

Mark Antony still makes Cleopatra queen of Syria, Cilicia, Cyprus and Arabia. This provokes the wrath of Octavius ​​who declares war on Cleopatra.

At the head of a powerful fleet, Mark Antony is defeated by Octavius ​​and General Agrippa. Mark Antony manages to reach Alexandria's shores and believes he has been abandoned by Cleopatra.

In this way, he commits suicide with his sword. In turn, knowing this attitude, Cleopatra prefers to follow her lover and kills herself too, allowing herself to be bitten by a snake.

Learn more about :

  • Ancient Egypt
  • Egyptian Civilization

Myth of Cleopatra in the West

Cleopatra entered the Western imagination as a synonym for beauty and seduction. The fact that she conquered two powerful men of her time contributed to the construction of this legend.

The historical paintings of the 19th century and also the films made in the 20th century reinforced this image that privilege her physical attributes to the detriment of her intelligence.

See also:Library of Alexandria

Movies about Cleopatra

  • Caesar and Cleopatra . Directed by:Gabriel Pascal. Year:1945.
  • Cleopatra . Directed by:Joseph L. Mankiewicz. Year:1963.

Quiz of personalities who made history

7Graus Quiz - Do you know who were the most important people in history? See also:Extraordinary Women Who Made History
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