Ancient history

History and Origin of the Calendar

The History and Origin of the Calendar it begins with the need to organize time, to record the evolution, as well as to celebrate on fixed dates.

Experts believe that it originated with the Sumerians - people of Mesopotamia - in 2700 BC. It consisted of 12 lunar months with 29 or 30 days, for a total of 354 in the year.

Thus, it did not coincide with the solar calendar, which is made up of 365 days.

Solar Calendar

The solar cycle was more difficult to observe, since the lunations are shorter, so the solar-based calendar was more difficult to study.

It was created by the Egyptians and had 365 days divided into 12 months with 30 days plus 5 days added at the end of the year. There was no leap year and the months were divided into three seasons:Flood, Winter and Summer.

Chinese Calendar

The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, that is, it considers both the solar and lunar cycles. It is formed by 12-year cycles, which begin in February - the month, therefore, that marks the beginning of the Chinese New Year.

Unlike the western calendar that assigns a sign to each month, the animals of the Chinese horoscope are not related to the months of the year, but to the years.

The animals are respectively the following and are repeated every five years:mouse, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog and pig.

Christian or Gregorian Calendar

This is the calendar currently used in Brazil and in most parts of the world.

It was created in Rome in the 6th century by a monk named Dionysus. The counting of the years should start with an event of great value, so, as a Christian, Dionysus considered that year 1 should be the year of the birth of Jesus Christ.

This calendar became official in the year 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII; for this reason it is also known as the Gregorian calendar.

Mayan Calendar

It dates back to 550 BC and is made up of two calendars - the Haab, which is the civil calendar - and the Tzolkin, which is the sacred calendar.

While the Haab has 365 days divided into 18 months with 20 days each, in a total of 360 (5 days do not belong to any month), the Tzolkin has 260 days divided into three groups of months with 20 days, in which each day is counted from 1 to 13.

Islamic Calendar

This is lunar and also receives the name of hegyric from the fact that the flight of Mohammed to Medina is called the Hijra (Higira is the first year of the Muslim era). It consists of 12 months of 29 or 30 days, for a total of 354 in the year.

Now that you know the origin of the calendar, learn to tell time and divide centuries.

Previous Post