History of Asia

Lord Lytton, 1876-1880

Lord Rippon

British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli after Lord Northbrook resigns Taking special note of the events in Central Asia, November, 1875 In AD Lord Lytton (Robert Bulwer Lytton Edward) was appointed as the Viceroy of India. Disraeli's very first letter to Lytton was an indication of what he had to do. The letter said:'The deplorable state of Central Asia needs a politician and I believe that if you occupy this high position, you will get an opportunity to serve not only the country but will also be able to become a part of everlasting fame .'

Lord Lytton had once earlier assumed the governorship of Madras. Rejected on health grounds, but accepted the position of Viceroy because 'It was a very high and noble order, which to refuse would be a dereliction of duty. In April, 1876, Lord Lytton assumed the office of Viceroy from Lord Northbrook.

Although Lytton was a genius, a great writer and an excellent orator. He was a diplomat by profession and had represented England in many countries of Europe. Apart from being soft-spoken and cultured, he was a noted poet, novelist and essayist and in the literary world 'Oven Meredith ' was popularly known as.

But Lytton's appointment as Viceroy was surprising because he had no special experience in administration and was not familiar with the conditions in India. He was imaginative, impractical and principled. Since the ideas of Lytton were deeply influenced by the then British imperialism and he also had unwavering faith in Disraeli's new Toryism. This is the reason why Disraeli appointed him as the Viceroy of India.

Internal Administration and Policies

Lytton was a reactionary administrator. He adopted a deeply imperialist and reactionary policy in the internal administration of India, which spread discontent among Indians and awakened national consciousness.

In fact the main reason for the failure of Lytton's internal policy was his imperialist approach. To protect the interests of England, he neglected the Indian interests, despised the sentiments of the Indians and put the reprehensible nature of the colonial policies before the Indian people. Thus his four-year rule (1876-1880) was a period of neglect and tyranny in India.

Policy of Independent Business

The economic exploitation of India was a part of British imperialism. This economic exploitation was done in many ways. These include a 'independent business There was also a concept. Free trade meant that British industrialists were free to exploit in India. In the name of free trade, the Indian government protected the interests of the cotton mills of Lancashire and Manchester. Indian industries were destroyed in the name of this free trade.

After 1870 the number of Indian textile mills started increasing. Indian mills often produced thick cloth and Indian cloth was cheap due to cheap wages. Although the fabric of Lancashire's mills was of excellent quality, the industrialists of Lancashire felt that the growth of the Indian textile industry would reduce their market in India. Therefore, their demand was that the import duties on the goods of the cotton mill should be abolished. It was also supported by Disraeli's conservative government as the support of industrialists was necessary to remain in power.

Lytton's executive council was not in favor of abolishing import duties. At this time there was also an economic crisis due to the Afghan war and famine. Nevertheless, disregarding all objections, Lytton, exercising his exclusive right, removed the import duty on 29 items, which included cloth, sugar, ladda (thick cloth), drill (jean) etc. But the Manchester Chamber of Commerce was not satisfied with this, as it wanted that the 5 percent duty imposed on the value of the value should also be removed. As a result, the Viceroy exercised his constitutional powers in 1879 Duty abolished from coarse foreign cloth. India's Minister Salisbury also approved the Viceroy's work with his special authority, although the votes in the Council of India were equal, ie 7 in favor and 7 in opposition.

Lytton also removed export tax on indigo and lac to benefit Lancashire's cotton mill owners. It was said that elections were to be held in 1880 and the Viceroy had taken this step to promote the interests of the conservative party. Thus the needs of Indian administration were sacrificed on British politics.

Financial Reform

Financial Reforms in Lytton's Era Financial Member of the Viceroy's Executive Council Sir John Strachey did. Before becoming a finance member, Strachey had been governor of the North-Western Provinces. He abolished duty on sugar and also reformed the salt tax system. Till now the government had to put up octroi barriers at various places to stop salt smuggling in various provinces. Strachey tried to equalize the rate of salt in all the provinces and eased the movement of salt by removing octroi. He inspired the Indian kings to give up the right to make salt in exchange for financial compensation and established his control over the salt production of the whole of India. Thus ended international smuggling and the government began to tax more than salt.

The second important task under financial reforms decentralization of finance was. Lord Mayo introduced the policy of financial decentralization in 1870 to inculcate a sense of responsibility in the provincial governments and gave income from certain items like prison, registration, police, education, medical services, printing, roads to the provincial governments. went. In addition, a certain grant was also given annually to the provinces. But these reforms did not solve the problem of provincial finances, because the expenditure of the provincial governments was more than the income.

Lytton took another step towards financial decentralization. Various taxes, such as land tax, excise tax, excise tax, stamp tax were also transferred to the provincial governments and the responsibility of general administration and law and order was also entrusted to the provinces. Now the annual grant of the provincial governments was abolished and the provinces were given the income of the concerned department for expenditure on related services. In Lytton's system, there was a provision that if any money is left after expenditure, it should be shared half-and-half with the central government, and if it falls short, the central government will bear half the burden. By doing this it was hoped that the provincial governments would develop their resources and the economic condition of the government would be strengthened. This system continued from 1877 AD to 1882 AD. The only drawback in this system was that the provincial governments did not show enthusiasm in the collection of central taxes. In fact it was financial decentralization, not a federal system.

The economic crisis in Lytton's period was exacerbated by famine, the Afghan war, and the abolition of import taxes, but Strachey's reforms did not deter the economic situation much. In the 1880s, the Finance Department was brought into disrepute due to accounting errors in the Military Department. Nevertheless, the financial situation remained satisfactory due to Strachey's reforms.

Famine of 1876-1878

A catastrophic famine in Lytton's era which lasted for two years (1876–1878). The regions most affected by this famine were Madras, Bombay Mysore, Hyderabad, Central India and Punjab. The impact of the famine is approximately 2,57000 square miles and 580 million fell on the people. Many villages were destroyed and a large part of the land was not cultivated. rc Dutt estimates that about 50 lakh people died of hunger in a year. The government casually assisted the famine victims, adding to the sufferings of the people and causing great loss of life and property. In addition, due to lack of communication tools, timely aid could not reach the famine victims.

Development of Communalism in India

Famine Commission

Although there were famines in different parts of India in 1861, 1866, 1868, 1873. But the famine of 1876-78 was the most severe and painful. Lord Lytton appointed a Famine Commission under the chairmanship of Sir Richard Strachey to deal with frequent famines. appointed. The commission submitted its report in 1880, but by then Lytton had left and Ripon had immigrated to India. Ripon accepted the recommendations to the Famine Commission and 'Feminine Insurance Fund' arranged. A license tax was levied on trade and business to obtain money and cesses were imposed on land also.

Organization of Delhi Durbar , January 1, 1877

The British Parliament enacted the Titles Act of 1876 passed, by which Queen Victoria was called 'Kaiser-e-Hind' was honored with the title of For the formal declaration of the title, Lytton wrote January 1, 1877 organized a splendid court in Delhi. In this court, the title was announced before the kings, nawabs and the public. Unfortunately at this time there was a severe famine in most parts of the country. The government shed lakhs of rupees like water on falsity and ostentation, especially when people were starving. RG According to Pradhan, this 'Raj-Title Act and the Delhi Durbar spread a secret feeling of national humiliation in the public. The Indians strongly criticized this Delhi Durbar. A Calcutta magazine compared it to the incident, 'Nero was playing the flute and Rome was burning.'

But this incident proved to be indirectly beneficial for India. A new movement arose in the minds of Indians with the convening of the Delhi Durbar, due to which the desire to get their rightful place in the empire aroused in their minds. He started revealing himself outspoken and 'India belongs to Indians ' slogan.

Lytton wanted the Indian kings and nawabs to be closer to the British Empire. He urged the Minister of India, Salisbury, to establish a 'Privy Council of India ' should be constituted and announced in the court. But at this time the British policy was to keep the kings separate. Salisbury rejected Lytton's offer. Nevertheless, some kings were called 'Councilors of the Impress ' was awarded the title.

Vernacular Press Act, 1878

Lytton's another act, which deeply hurt the sentiments of Indians, was the Vernacular Press Act. He did the Delhi Durbar at a time when thousands of Indians were dying due to famine. He shed crores of rupees of the country by waging war with Afghanistan in 1878. Lytton's policies were being openly criticized in the newspapers of India and England. Litton considered Indian condemnation to be sedition, so he decided to take strict action against Indian newspapers like Irish newspapers. Despite the opposition of the members of his council, Litton took approval by telegram from the Minister of India 14 March, 1878 The Vernacular Press Act (Indian Language Newspaper Act) was introduced in the Council and passed on the same day.

By this act the magistrate was empowered with the approval of the government to order any printer or publisher to deposit the surety and get him to have such a promissory note That he will not publish material against the Government or causing enmity between different castes. The government had the right to warn or take bail from the paper concerned in the offense of publishing unwanted subjects, forfeit the bail and if the offense was committed again, the government could also confiscate the printing press. Was. In this act the magistrates (dednayakas) were given the power to punish and the decision of the magistrate could not be appealed to the court. The printer was given the option to send the proof to the government censors and remove the material that was rejected.

The act was widely opposed in India and England and was called 'Stranglehold Law ' (Ragging Act) was declared. Sir Erskine Perry, who was a member of the India Council, called the Act 'regressive and inconsistent ' Told. He said that no imperialist law could be stricter than this for suppression of newspapers. According to Surendranath Banerjee this 'thunderbolt ' was. In fact, the reason for the discontent of Indians was that this Act was applied only to newspapers in Indian languages. English newspapers and civil service people supported Lytton. इस विभेदकारी अधिनियम से स्पष्ट हो गया था कि लिटन कितना बड़ा प्रतिक्रियावादी राजनीतिज्ञ था। बाद में 1882 में लॉर्ड रिपन ने इस अधिनियम को निरस्त कर दिया।

भारतीय शस्त्र अधिनियम , 1878

लिटन की दमनकारी नीति का एक और कार्य भारतीय शस्त्र अधिनियम बनाना था। 1878 के ग्यारहवें अधिनियम के अनुसार किसी भारतीय के लिए बिना लाइसेंस शस्त्र रखना अथवा उसका व्यापार करना एक दंडनीय अपराध घोषित कर दिया गया। इस अधिनियम को तोड़ने पर तीन वर्ष तक की जेल, अथवा जुर्माना अथवा दोनों और इसको छुपाने का प्रयत्न करने पर सात वर्ष तक की जेल, अथवा जुर्माना अथवा दोनों दंड दिये जा सकते थे। किंतु इस अधिनियम में भी भेदभाव किया गया था क्योंकि यूरोपियनों, ऐंग्लो-इंडियनों अथवा सरकार के कुछ विशेष अधिकारियों पर यह अधिनियम लागू नहीं था। इस अधिनियम से यह स्पष्ट हो गया कि भारतीयों को अविश्वासनीय माना जाता था। भारतीयों के बढ़ते हुए असंतोष को देखकर लॉर्ड लिटन ने इस अधिनियम को रद्द कर दिया। भारतीयों की इस विजय ने राष्ट्रीय आंदोलन में उन्हें सक्रिय सहयोग के लिए प्रोत्साहित किया।

वैधानिक नागरिक सेवा

1833 के चार्टर ऐक्ट की ग्यारहवीं धारा के अनुसार भारत में सभी पद देश, जाति और रंग भेद से मुक्त, सभी लोगों को यदि वे इसके योग्य हों तो मिल सकते थे। 1853 में लं दन में कंपनी में उच्च पदों पर नियुक्ति के लिए एक प्रतियोगी परीक्षा की शुरूआत की गई। किंतु भारतीय जानपद सेवा की इस परीक्षा में भारतीयों का बैठना और उसमें सफल होना अत्यंत कठिन था। 1862 से 1875 तक 50 भारतीय इस परीक्षा में सम्मिलित हुए और उनमें से केवल 10 ही सफल हो सके थे। प्रथम भारतीय सत्येंद्रनाथ टैगोर थे, जिन्हें 1864 में इस परीक्षा में सफलता प्राप्त हुई थी।

लिटन ने 1878-79 में वैधानिक जानपद सेवा (स्टेटुटरी सिविल सर्विस) की योजना प्रस्तुत की। इस योजना के अंतर्गत प्रांतीय सरकारों की सिफारिश और भारत-सचिव की स्वीकृति के पश्चात कुछ उच्च कुल के भारतीयों को इस सेवा में लिया जा सकता था। किंतु वैधानिक सिविल सेवा में पद और वेतन वैसा नहीं था, जैसा कि सिविल सेवा में था। फलतः वैधानिक जानपद सेवा भारतीयों में बहुत लोकप्रिय नहीं हो सकी और आठ वर्ष बाद ही बंद कर दी गई।

यद्यपि इसके पूर्व भी लॉर्ड लिटन ने भारतीयों को इंडियन सिविल सर्विस में जाने से रोकने के लिए एक पृथक् संवृत स्थानीय सेवा (क्लोज नेटिव सर्विस) की योजना प्रस्तुत की थी। किंतु गृह अधिकारी लिटन के विचार से सहमत नहीं हुए थे, क्योंकि उनके अनुसार एक काली और एक गोरी सेवा संभव नहीं थी और इससे भेदभाव की गंध आती।

भारत सचिव, लिटन के इस प्रस्ताव से सहमत नहीं थे कि भारतीयों के लिए भारतीय जानपद सेवा पूर्णतया बंद कर दी जाए। फिर भी, भारतीयों को इस सेवा में जाने से रोकने के लिए परीक्षा की आयु 21 वर्ष से घटाकर 19 वर्ष कर दी गई। चूंकि परीक्षा केवल लंदन में होती थी, इसलिए इस आयु के भारतीयों के लिए वहाँ जाकर परीक्षा देना बहुत कठिन था। वास्तव में यह भारतीय जानपद सेवा में भारतीयों के अवसरों को समाप्त करने का एक प्रयत्न था।

सिंध का विलय

द्वितीय अफ़गान युद्ध ( 1878-1880)

लिटन को प्रधानमंत्री डिजरायली ने विशेष रूप से रूसी प्रभाव को रोकने और अफगानिस्तान के प्रति अग्रगामी नीति के क्रियान्वयन के लिए भारत भेजा था। इस नीति का उद्देश्य अफगानिस्तान को ब्रिटिश नियंत्रण में लाकर भारतीय साम्राज्य के लिए ‘वैज्ञानिक सीमा ’ प्राप्त करना था। इस साम्राज्यवादी नीति के कारण लिटन ने अफगानों से एक मूर्खतापूर्ण युद्ध छेड़ दिया, जो अपने आरंभ तथा परिणामों में प्रथम अफगान युद्ध ( 1839-1842) के समान ही विनाशकारी सिद्ध हुआ। सब कुछ करने के बाद अंततः लिटन की अफ़गान नीति पूर्णतया असफल हो गई और इसके परिणाम न केवल लिटन की प्रतिष्ठा के लिए घातक साबित हुए, बल्कि ब्रिटिश रूढ़िवादी सरकार के पतन का कारण बने।

1880 में इंग्लैंड में चुनाव हुए जिसमें उदारवादी दल सत्ता में आया और उसके नेता ग्लैडस्टोन इंग्लैंड के प्रधानमंत्री बन गये। फलतः वायसराय लॉर्ड लिटन को 1880 में अपने पद इस्तीफा देना पड़ा।

लिटन के कार्यकाल में मुस्लिम समाज में शिक्षा को प्रोत्साहित करने के उद्देश्य से अलीगढ़ में मुस्लिम कालेज की स्थापना की गई। इसकी स्थापना में सर सैयद अहमद खाँ का विशेष योगदान था। लिटन ने एक पृथक् उत्तर-पश्चिम सीमा प्रांत बनाने की योजना प्रस्तुत की। किंतु यह योजना लॉर्ड कर्जन के काल में ही क्रियान्वित हो सकी। उसने भारतीय नरेशों की एक अंतःपरिषद् बनाने का भी विचार किया, किंतु यह योजना भी 1921 में चैंबर ऑफ प्रिंसेज के रूप में मांटफोर्ड योजना के अंतर्गत ही अस्तित्व में आ सकी।

1830 की फ्रांसीसी क्रांति (जुलाई क्रांति)

लिटन का मूल्यांकन

लिटन एक कल्पनाशील व्यक्ति था, जो एक प्रशासक के रूप में असफल रहा। भारत में किसी वायसराय के कार्यों की इतनी कटु आलोचना नहीं हुई, जितनी लिटन की गई। इसका मुख्य कारण यह था कि वह घोर साम्राज्यवादी था और भारत को एक उपनिवेश मात्र समझता था। उसने भारतीयों के साथ अत्यंत अपमानजनक दुर्व्यवहार किया। वह प्रजातीय भावना से पीड़ित था और भारतीयों को निम्न, अयोग्य और अविश्वासी समझता था। उसने आई.सी.एस. में भारतीयों के प्रवेश को रोकने का हरसंभव प्रयास किया। उसके काल में लाखों लोग अकाल में काल के ग्रास बन गये और हजारों गाँव उजड़ गये। ऐसे समय में उसने भारतीयों का उपहास उड़ाने और ब्रिटिश शक्ति का प्रदर्शन करने के लिए शानदार दिल्ली दरबार का आयोजन किया। वर्नाक्यूलर प्रेस एक्ट के द्वारा उसने भारतीयों के अभिव्यक्ति के अधिकार को समाप्त कर दिया। उसके सभी कार्य भारतीय विरोधी थे और सभी में प्रजातीयता की गंध थी। उसकी अप्रिय और दमनकारी नीति से भारत की जनता में असंतोष फैलना स्वाभाविक था।

इस प्रकार लिटन का कार्यकाल निंदनीय कार्यों से भरा पड़ा है, लेकिन उसने कुछ रचनात्मक सुझाव भी दिये थे, जैसे- उत्तर-पश्चिम सीमा प्रांत का निर्माण, इंडियन प्रिवी काउंसिल का गठन, स्वर्ण स्टैंडर्ड की स्थापना आदि। किंतु अफगान युद्ध और अकाल के कारण उसका कार्यकाल भारतीयों के लिए दुखदायी रहा।

वस्तुतः लिटन साम्राज्यवादी और सामंतवादी विचारधारा का व्यक्ति था। उसका प्रशासन मानवीय भावनाओं से शून्य था। जो भी हो, लिटन की दमनकारी नीतियों से भारतीय समाज में नई जागृति आई और इस प्रकार न चाहते हुए भी उसने भारत पर उपकार कर दिया।

वारेन हेस्टिंग्स के सुधार और नीतियाँ

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