The Community Blow , also known as the Declaration of Majority, guaranteed the accession to the throne of D. Pedro II, on July 23, 1840, at the age of 14.
The anticipation of adulthood was the Liberal Party's strategy to end the Regency Period (1831-1840), when Brazil was ruled by regencies.
This happened due to the abdication of D. Pedro I (father of D. Pedro II) as Emperor of the Country. The heir was only five years old at the time.
Therefore, Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga de Bragança e Bourbon (full name of D. Pedro II) was declared of legal age.
D. Pedro II, the second and last emperor of Brazil
The goal of the Majority Coup was to restore political stability to Brazil. The country was marked by political and social confrontations in the First Reign (1822-1831) and which continued into the Regency Period (1831-1840).
During the First Reign, which began in 1822, D. Pedro I was a centralizing emperor, much to the displeasure of his supporters. With the death of Dom João VI, in Portugal, Dom Pedro I took over as king of this country, and was divided between Brazil and Portugal. In this way, D. Pedro I was forced to abdicate the Brazilian throne.
His successor, D. Pedro II, was only 5 years old. For this reason, the country came to be governed by regents, who were represented by political groups (liberal and conservative) that defended different principles.
The power struggle resulted in a series of revolts, such as the Guerra dos Farrapos, Cabanagem, Balaiada and Sabinada.
Reasons for the Majority Coup
Many believed that the instability was caused especially as a result of the omission of a strong figure to govern the country. However, the Constitution of 1824 provided for the emperor to be of age only at the age of 18 (art.121).
Liberals, however, conceived the idea that it was necessary to centralize power again. Therefore, they presented a project that anticipated the age of majority to be voted on by the Chamber on three occasions.
Likewise, the Club was created da Majority , led by Antônio Carlos de Andrada e Silva. The strategy was to reduce the emperor's age so that D. Pedro II, who conveyed the idea of national unity, could assume the leadership of Brazil.
D. Pedro II started the Second Empire of Brazil, whose period comprises the dates from July 23, 1840 to November 15, 1889, the date of the coup of the Republic, also known as the Proclamation of the Republic.
- Regency Period
- Second Reign