Millennium History

History of South America

  • Túpac Yupanqui:The Inca Navigator

    Around 1465, before Christopher Columbus arrived in America (1492), the then hatun auqui (conquering prince) Túpac Yupanqui –who would later become the tenth ruler of the Inca civilization– undertook an expedition to the current islands of Polynesia –one of the sub regions of Oceania–. The mission p

  • The Curacas:Inca leaders

    The Curacas were the Inca ethnic leaders who regulated the functions within the ayllu, the base of Andean organization, by establishing bonds of solidarity and regulating the functions of the ethnic or parental group, such as the organization of agricultural tasks, the redistribution of resources, a

  • Infographic by Miguel Grau

    On a day like today, July 27, El Caballero de los mares was born and in our infographic you can learn more about the life of the greatest national hero.Miguel Grau was born in the city of Piura on July 27, 1834. He was the son of the Lieutenant Colonel Juan Manuel Grau y Berrío, born in the city of

  • The epic end of the Spanish Empire in South America:the last defenders of Peru

    The Galician José Ramón Rodil resisted waiting for reinforcements from the Peninsula for almost two years in the Fortress of Real Felipe del Callao, which experienced the death or desertion of 2,424 of the 2,800 soldiers who defended it within its walls. The sad epilogue to the wars of emancipation

  • San Martín should not be at the center of the memory of Independence

    Compared to other countries, Peruvians have built an official memory of independence as a process that came from outside and minimizing the participation of Peruvians, says the renowned historian. For many generations, Peruvians have been commemorating July 28, 1821 as “the day of our independence”.

  • Mayan stone panels with images of ball players

    A team of archaeologists has discovered at the archaeological site of Tipán Chen Uitz, located in Belize, two stone panels from 1,300 years ago in which ancient Mayans are represented playing with nine balls of a span while carrying impressive fans. According to experts, the panels date back to 700

  • What was life like for the Inca royalty of Peru?

    Fray Martín de Murúa was a Mercedarian religious who lived between 1566 and 1615. He was the author of two illustrated manuscripts that he dreamed of publishing one day, a wish that he could not achieve, since he died before the King of Spain gave him the authorization. In fact, it was not until the

  • Trepanations in ancient Peru

    Until today, there is an ancient unsolved mystery regarding the cranial trepanations that the ancient Peruvians practiced, according to John Verano, to cure migraines, aneurysms and intense headaches.Write:Suriel Chacon. The forensic anthropologist and researcher, John Verano, throughout his profes

  • Magical and mortal punishments of the Inca Pachacutec

    If you are one of those who thinks that the Inca was a being of light, you are not wrong. He was one in his own way and according to the principles that prevailed in those times. But what we must respect is his right that he was a human being, with ambitions, mistakes, defects and virtues. A man wit

  • The war of the two brothers:division and fall of the Inca Empire

    On July 26, 1533, the last ruler of the Inca empire, Atahualpa, was executed by the Spanish with a garrote (device used to strangle prisoners). His death meant the end of the great Inca empire and the beginning of the Spanish conquest of that region of South America. Only a year before, Atahualpa ha

  • Tangarará, The first Spanish city in Peru.

    We have once said that the history of Peru must be rewritten. Because there are facts omitted, misrepresented or simply forgotten, which deserve to be reconsidered. One of them is the case of Tangarará, the first city founded by the Spanish in South America, although in school and in history books i

  • The Inca invasion (1470 – 1525)

    It was the sovereign Túpac Inca Yupanqui who, in the mid-fifteenth century, began to incorporate new territories into the empire, reaching as far north as Quito, and as far south as the Choapa River. Later his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui, ended up shaping his territory, dominating even northwestern Arge

  • Chile:Thief and shameless country The Chilean looting of Peru between 1879 and 1884

    Chile:Thief and shameless country.- The Chilean looting of Peru between 1879 and 1884.- Tribute to the dishonest republic that has stolen the most from its neighbors in South America.- Documents and texts for the History of Chile and Peru Writes:César Vásquez Bazán The Chilean soldier on the left

  • The Inca who betrayed his brother (:

    José Vargas Sifuentes -Journalist- Manco Inca promoted Diego de Almagros trip to Chile to separate him from his partner and annihilate him. The story of the long resistance of the Incas against the Spanish, initiated by Manco Inca, appointed by the Spanish as Atahualpas successor; and continued by

  • Betrayals and dictatorship of the authentic Simón Bolívar:the “Spanish” millionaire who became a revolutionary

    History remembers Simón Bolívar as the great liberator of South America and the man who dreamed of a US-style democratic confederation of free states. Those who have raised this polished and mythologized version of Bolívar, today revered by a certain left, take care. American, in omitting the despot

  • Religion in Ancient Peru:new perspectives

    As of 1987, the author began to be interested in the study of aspects concerning the religion professed by the ancient Peruvians, due to the fact that at that time he began ethnographic investigations in high Andean landscapes. These allowed him to collect myths and legends of ancestral roots, as we

  • The Incas and their mummies, an afterlife relationship on earth.

    During the Inca period, the remains of the dignitaries were mummified and treated as living people. Some even married after death.In the Inca empire, death had strong links with daily life. According to historians, this Andean society had spiritual and time concepts different from those of Western c

  • The discovery of America

    The arrival of Europeans in America is part of the so-called geographical discoveries. The causes will be economic, scientific and political:Europe wanted to find a direct route to reach the so-called spice islands. After the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, the desire became a neces

  • Bicentennial of Peru:what was really the last South American country to become independent from Spain?

    The Andean country is the last former Spanish colony in South America to celebrate its bicentennial. The other eight South American countries that emancipated themselves from the Spanish crown celebrated their bicentennials long before. Bolivia and Ecuador commemorated it in 2009. Venezuela, Argenti

  • Inbreeding caused the facial deformation of the Habsburgs

    A study carried out on several portraits of some members of this dynasty has revealed new data on the relationship between consanguinity practiced by its members for more than 200 years and the appearance of certain facial deformities such as mandibular prognathism or maxillary deficiency. Carlos

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